(1/93) The multisubstrate docking site of the MET receptor is dispensable for MET-mediated RAS signaling and cell scattering.

The scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor regulates scattering and morphogenesis of epithelial cells through activation of the MET tyrosine kinase receptor. In particular, the noncatalytic C-terminal tail of MET contains two autophosphorylation tyrosine residues, which form a multisubstrate-binding site for several cytoplasmic effectors and are thought to be essential for signal transduction. We show here that a MET receptor mutated on the four C-terminal tyrosine residues, Y1311F, Y1347F, Y1354F, and Y1363F, can induce efficiently a transcriptional response and cell scattering, whereas it cannot induce cell morphogenesis. Although the mutated receptor had lost its ability to recruit and/or activate known signaling molecules, such as GRB2, SHC, GAB1, and PI3K, by using a sensitive association-kinase assay we found that the mutated receptor can still associate and phosphorylate a approximately 250-kDa protein. By further examining signal transduction mediated by the mutated MET receptor, we established that it can transmit efficient RAS signaling and that cell scattering by the mutated MET receptor could be inhibited by a pharmacological inhibitor of the MEK-ERK (MAP kinase kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway. We propose that signal transduction by autophosphorylation of the C-terminal tyrosine residues is not the sole mechanism by which the activated MET receptor can transmit RAS signaling and cell scattering.  (+info)

(2/93) mGrb10 interacts with Nedd4.

We have utilized the yeast two-hybrid system to identify proteins interacting with mouse Grb10, an adapter protein known to interact with both the insulin and the insulin-like growth factor-I receptors. We have isolated a mouse cDNA clone containing the C2 domain of mouse Nedd4, a ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) that also contains a hect (homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl-terminus) domain and three WW domains. The interaction with Grb10 in the two-hybrid system was confirmed using the full-length Nedd4, and it was abolished by deleting the last 148 amino acids of Grb10, a region that includes the SH2 domain and the newly identified BPS domain. The interaction between Grb10 and Nedd4 was also reproduced in vivo in mouse embryo fibroblasts, where endogenous Nedd4 co-immunoprecipitated constitutively with both the endogenous and an overexpressed Grb10. This interaction was Ca(2+)-independent. Grb10 interacting with Nedd4 was not ubiquitinated in vivo, raising the possibility that this interaction may be used to target other proteins, like tyrosine kinase receptors, for ubiquitination.  (+info)

(3/93) Grb10, a positive, stimulatory signaling adapter in platelet-derived growth factor BB-, insulin-like growth factor I-, and insulin-mediated mitogenesis.

Grb10 has been described as a cellular partner of several receptor tyrosine kinases, including the insulin receptor (IR) and the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor (IGF-IR). Its cellular role is still unclear and a positive as well as an inhibitory role in mitogenesis depending on the cell context has been implicated. We have tested other mitogenic receptor tyrosine kinases as putative Grb10 partners and have identified the activated forms of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor beta (PDGFRbeta), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met), and fibroblast growth factor receptor as candidates. We have mapped Y771 as a PDFGRbeta site that is involved in the association with Grb10 via its SH2 domain. We have further investigated the putative role of Grb10 in mitogenesis with four independent experimental strategies and found that all consistently suggested a role as a positive, stimulatory signaling adaptor in normal fibroblasts. (i) Complete Grb10 expression from cDNA with an ecdysone-regulated transient expression system stimulated PDGF-BB-, IGF-I, and insulin- but not epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced DNA synthesis in an ecdysone dose-responsive fashion. (ii) Microinjection of the (dominant-negative) Grb10 SH2 domain interfered with PDGF-BB- and insulin-induced DNA synthesis. (iii) Alternative experiments were based on cell-permeable fusion peptides with the Drosophila antennapedia homeodomain which effectively traverse the plasma membrane of cultured cells. A cell-permeable Grb10 SH2 domain similarly interfered with PDGF-BB-, IGF-I-, and insulin-induced DNA synthesis. In contrast, a cell-permeable Grb10 Pro-rich putative SH3 domain binding region interfered with IGF-I- and insulin- but not with PDGF-BB- or EGF-induced DNA synthesis. (iv) Transient overexpression of complete Grb10 increased whereas cell-permeable Grb10 SH2 domain fusion peptides substantially decreased the cell proliferation rate (as measured by cell numbers) in normal fibroblasts. These experimental strategies independently suggest that Grb10 functions as a positive, stimulatory, mitogenic signaling adapter in PDGF-BB, IGF-I, and insulin action. This function appears to involve the Grb10 SH2 domain, a novel sequence termed BPS, and the Pro-rich putative SH3 domain binding region in IGF-I- and insulin-mediated mitogenesis. In contrast, PDGF-BB-mediated mitogenesis appears to depend on the SH2 but not on the Pro-rich region and may involve other, unidentified Grb10 domains. Distinct protein domains may help to define specific Grb10 functions in different signaling pathways.  (+info)

(4/93) Activation of infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes and lymphoma cell apoptotic rates in gastric MALT lymphomas. Differences between high-grade and low-grade cases.

In this study, we have characterized infiltrating T lymphocytes from 13 low-grade and 17 high-grade primary gastric MALT lymphomas by immunohistochemistry, with particular regard to the presence, activation, and topographic distribution of cytotoxic effectors. Although the prevalence of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was similar in low- and high-grade lymphomas, higher numbers of TIA-1+ cytotoxic effectors were found in this latter group of cases (11.6 versus 7. 8%; P = 0.004). Activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was significantly more pronounced in high- than in low-grade lymphomas, as shown by immunostaining for perforin (8.7 versus 4.0%; P = 0.001) and granzyme-B (GrB) (8.7% versus 3.0%; P < 0.0001). Of note, CD20/GrB double labeling showed that high-grade lymphomas carried a markedly higher content (about ninefold) of activated CTLs relative to the number of CD20+ lymphoma B cells (0.081 +/- 0.076 versus 0.009 +/- 0.011; P < 0.0001). Moreover, high-grade lymphomas showed significantly increased apoptotic rates compared to low-grade cases (5.3 and 1.1% of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, respectively; P < 0.0001). In the whole series, the percentage of GrB+ cells and the GrB+/CD20+ ratio showed a strong linear correlation with the number of TUNEL-labeled cells. These findings, together with the frequent colocalization of CTLs and TUNEL+ neoplastic cells, suggested that apoptotic death of lymphoma cells may be due at least in part to the killing by cytotoxic effectors. Our results are consistent with the occurrence of host antitumor cell-mediated immune responses in gastric MALT lymphomas. Moreover, the finding of stronger cytotoxic responses in high- than in low-grade cases is of potential usefulness in the design of more effective therapeutic strategies for the management of these disorders.  (+info)

(5/93) Localization of endogenous Grb10 to the mitochondria and its interaction with the mitochondrial-associated Raf-1 pool.

Grb10 belongs to a small family of adapter proteins that are known to interact with a number of receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling molecules. We have recently demonstrated that the Grb10 SH2 domain interacts with both the Raf-1 and MEK1 kinases. Overexpression of Grb10 genes with mutations in their SH2 domains promotes apoptosis in cultured cells, a phenotype that is reversed by concomitant overexpression of the wild type gene. Using immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation we now show that most of the Grb10 molecules are peripherally associated with mitochondria. Following insulin-like growth factor I or serum treatment, small pools of Grb10 can also be found at the plasma membrane and in actin-rich membrane ruffles, whereas overexpression of Grb10 leads to its mislocalization to the cytosol. Two-hybrid analysis shows that the Grb10-binding site on Raf-1 co-localizes with its Ras-binding domain. Finally, we show that the endogenous Grb10 and Raf-1 proteins can be co-immunoprecipitated from a partially purified mitochondrial extract, an interaction that is enhanced following the activation of Raf-1 by ultraviolet radiation. Thus, we infer that Grb10 may regulate signaling between plasma membrane receptors and the apoptosis-inducing machinery on the mitochondrial outer membrane by modulating the anti-apoptotic activity of mitochondrial Raf-1.  (+info)

(6/93) Duplication of 7p11.2-p13, including GRB10, in Silver-Russell syndrome.

Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth failure and other dysmorphic features. The syndrome is genetically heterogeneous, but maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 has been demonstrated in approximately 7% of cases. This suggests that at least one gene on chromosome 7 is imprinted and involved in the pathogenesis of SRS. We have identified a de novo duplication of 7p11.2-p13 in a proband with features characteristic of SRS. FISH confirmed the presence of a tandem duplication encompassing the genes for growth factor receptor-binding protein 10 (GRB10) and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 3 (IGFBP1 and -3) but not that for epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR). Microsatellite markers showed that the duplication was of maternal origin. These findings provide the first evidence that SRS may result from overexpression of a maternally expressed imprinted gene, rather than from absent expression of a paternally expressed gene. GRB10 lies within the duplicated region and is a strong candidate, since it is a known growth suppressor. Furthermore, the mouse homologue (Grb10/Meg1) is reported to be maternally expressed and maps to the imprinted region of proximal mouse chromosome 11 that demonstrates prenatal growth failure when it is maternally disomic. We have demonstrated that the GRB10 genomic interval replicates asynchronously in human lymphocytes, suggestive of imprinting. An additional 36 SRS probands were investigated for duplication of GRB10, but none were found. However, it remains possible that GRB10 and/or other genes within 7p11.2-p13 are responsible for some cases of SRS.  (+info)

(7/93) MEIG1 localizes to the nucleus and binds to meiotic chromosomes of spermatocytes as they initiate meiosis.

Meiosis, the fundamental evolutionarily conserved differentiative process by which haploid gametes are produced, is a complex and tightly regulated nuclear process. The murine Meig1 gene was previously shown to have a germ cell-specific transcript which is abundantly expressed during meiosis, in both males and females, suggesting that it is involved in meiotic processes. Protein analysis revealed that MEIG1 appears in multiple phosphorylated forms, including two dimeric forms of M(r) 31,000 and 32,000, which exhibit a developmentally regulated switch in their relative abundance. The tyrosine-phosphorylated M(r) 31,000 form becomes the dominant form once the cells enter meiosis. In this study we show that the M(r) 31,000 dimeric form appears in the nuclear fraction of testicular protein extract, whereas the M(r) 32,000 dimeric form and the monomeric forms of MEIG1 remain cytoplasmic. The appearance in the nuclear fraction is developmentally regulated, coinciding with progression of the first spermatogenic wave through meiotic prophase I. Utilizing immunocytochemistry we show that nuclear localization is apparent in primary spermatocytes through their maturation into elongated spermatozoa, but not in either somatic cells or germ cells from early postnatal pups. We also show that MEIG1 associates specifically with meiotic chromosomes in vivo. These results indicate that in germ cells, the M(r) 31,000 dimeric form enters the nucleus during the first meiotic prophase and binds to the meiotic chromatin. Possible nuclear functions, as well as possible modes of nuclear localization, are discussed.  (+info)

(8/93) Constitutive activation of the Ras/MAP kinase pathway and enhanced TCR signaling by targeting the Shc adaptor to membrane rafts.

The Shc adaptor is responsible for coupling receptor tyrosine kinases and tyrosine kinase-associated receptors to the Ras/MAP kinase pathway. Shc is believed to be regulated by a change in subcellular localization from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, where it recruits Grb-2/Sos complexes and hence permits juxtaposition of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sos to Ras, resulting in GDP/GTP exchange and Ras activation. Shc has been recently shown to inducibly colocalize in detergent-resistant membrane rafts together with the activated TCR and associated signaling molecules. To understand whether Shc localization in membrane rafts is sufficient to regulate Shc function, we constructed a Shc chimera containing the Ras membrane localization motif at the C-terminus. We show that membrane targeted Shc was constitutively localized in the plasma membrane of T-cells, and was mostly compartmentalized in lipid rafts. Membrane targeted Shc was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and bound Grb-2/Sos in the absence of TCR engagement. Furthermore, expression of membrane targeted Shc resulted in constitutive downstream signaling, including Erk2 activation and enhancement of TCR dependent activation of the TCR responsive transcription factor NF-AT. Hence localization of Shc in membrane rafts is sufficient for Shc to acquire a signaling competent state. Interestingly, a membrane targeted Shc mutant lacking both Grb-2 binding sites was not only incapable of signaling in the absence of TCR triggering, but transdominantly inhibited endogenous Shc, supporting a non redundant role for Shc in the activation of the Ras/MAP kinase pathway in T-cells.  (+info)