Expression of CD44 in human cumulus and mural granulosa cells of individual patients in in-vitro fertilization programmes.
CD44 is a polymorphic and polyfunctional transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in many types of cells. Here, the expression of this protein on human membrana granulosa was studied by two techniques. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with the mouse monoclonal antibody to human CD44 (clone G44-26), cells immunoreactive for CD44 were observed in both cumulus and mural granulosa cell masses. On the other hand, using monoclonal antibody to human CD44v9, goat polyclonal antibody to human CD44v3-10 and the clone G44-26, no immunoreactivity for CD44v9 and/or CD44v3-10 was observed in either cell group by flow cytometry. In the flow cytometric analysis of 32 patients, the incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells (62.6+/-1.3%) was significantly higher than that in mural granulosa cells (38.5+/-3.2%) (P<0.0001). In the comparison of CD44 expression by flow cytometry according to the maturation of each cumulus-oocyte complex, the incidence of CD44 expression of cumulus cells was significantly higher in the mature group than in the immature group (P<0.05). In a flow cytometric analysis, patients with endometriosis showed a significantly lower incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells compared to the infertility of unknown origin group (P<0.05), and compared to both the male infertility group and the unknown origin group in mural granulosa cells (P<0.01). These findings suggest that the standard form of CD44 is expressed in human membrana granulosa with polarity and may play an important role in oocyte maturation. (+info)
The mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha on aromatase activity in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries.
We investigated aromatization and the mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) on oestradiol biosynthesis in freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. Freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries incubated for only 3 h under basal conditions secreted significantly (P< 0.001) greater amounts of oestradiol-17beta than that of granulosa cells from normal ovaries. 8-Bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), but not follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH), further enhanced this activity. Both EGF and TGFalpha inhibited gonadotrophinor 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated, but not basal, oestradiol production. LH receptor (LHR) binding, estimated by immunolabelling the bound LH, was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries when compared with cells from normal ovaries. EGF or TGFalpha significantly reduced the binding in cultured cells from all patient groups (P< 0.05). More interestingly, a further increase of the inhibitory effect was seen in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries contain high levels of basal aromatase activity in vitro, which is probably inherited from the in-vivo condition. EGF and TGFalpha suppress oestradiol synthesis at a step beyond the production of cAMP and also LHR binding with more effect in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. (+info)
Low oxygen inhibits but complex high-glucose medium facilitates in vitro maturation of squirrel monkey oocyte-granulosa cell complexes.
PURPOSE: The objectives of these in vitro maturation studies in primate cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were to evaluate the effect of a reduced-oxygen environment and to compare medium with a high-glucose concentration to medium with pyruvate but no glucose. METHODS: COCs were retrieved from squirrel monkeys stimulated with 1 mg of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) for 4-6 days. Experiment 1 examined maturation after 48 hr in 5% O2/5% CO2/90% N2 compared with 5% CO2/air. The medium was CMRL-1066 containing moderate glucose (5.5 mM) supplemented with 1 mM glutamine, 0.33 mM pyruvate, 0.075 IU/ml human FSH, 5 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotropin, 75 U penicillin G/ml, and 20% fetal bovine serum. Experiment 2 in 5% CO2/air, compared P-1 medium (pyruvate and lactate but no glucose) to Waymouth's medium (27.5 mM glucose), both with identical supplements. RESULTS: Only 3 (8%) of 37 COCs matured in 5% O2, while 39 (49%) of 80 matured in ambient O2. Fourteen (22%) of 64 complexes matured in P-1 medium, compared to 47 (49%) of 96 meiosis II oocytes in Waymouth's medium (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These are the first primate studies showing detrimental effects of reduced-oxygen culture on in vitro maturation. Additionally, maturation was enhanced with complex high-glucose medium suggesting that the predominant metabolism is aerobic glycolysis. (+info)
Production of cloned calves following nuclear transfer with cultured adult mural granulosa cells.
Adult somatic cell nuclear transfer was used to determine the totipotent potential of cultured mural granulosa cells, obtained from a Friesian dairy cow of high genetic merit. Nuclei were exposed to oocyte cytoplasm for prolonged periods by electrically fusing quiescent cultured cells to enucleated metaphase II cytoplasts 4-6 h before activation (fusion before activation [FBA] treatment). Additionally, some first-generation morulae were recloned by fusing blastomeres to S-phase cytoplasts. A significantly higher proportion of fused embryos developed in vitro to grade 1-2 blastocysts on Day 7 with FBA (27.5 +/- 2.5%) than with recloning (13.0 +/- 3.6%; p < 0. 05). After the transfer of 100 blastocysts from the FBA treatment, survival rates on Days 60, 100, 180, and term were 45%, 21%, 17%, and 10%, respectively. Ten heifer calves were delivered by elective cesarean section; all have survived. After the transfer of 16 recloned blastocysts, embryo survival on Day 60 was 38%; however, no fetuses survived to Day 100. DNA analyses confirmed that the calves are all genetically identical to the donor cow. It is suggested that the losses throughout gestation may in part be due to placental dysfunction at specific stages. The next advance in this technology will be to introduce specific genetic modifications of biomedical or agricultural interest. (+info)
Relaxin secretion by human granulosa cell culture is predictive of in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer success.
We have developed a cell culture system for human luteinizing granulosa cells which supports the timely and dynamic secretion of oestrogen, progesterone and relaxin in patterns that mimic serum concentrations of these hormones during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. There was a wide variation in the amount of relaxin secreted by the cultured cells for the 69 patients studied. As relaxin production was generally maximal by day 10 of culture, comparisons were made at this time point. It was observed that most of the conceptions occurred in patients with higher relaxin secretion in vitro. All cycles with relaxin > 800 pg/ml on day 10 had a term pregnancy while only 13% of cycles with relaxin < 200 pg/ml had term pregnancies. A limited number of cycles from donor/recipient cycles did not show similar results. Steroid concentrations were not predictive of conception. These results demonstrated that in-vitro production of relaxin is predictive of implantation success in in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer cycles. This supports the hypothesis that relaxin may be involved in implantation and that lowered relaxin concentrations may be a partial cause of poor pregnancy rates after IVF. (+info)
Induction of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in human ovary by human chorionic gonadotrophin.
The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in human ovarian function remains obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate how MIF was related to ovulation by quantitative analysis of serum, follicular fluid and culture medium of granulosa cells obtained from in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer patients. Serum MIF concentrations in ovarian stimulation cycles for IVF-embryo transfer were higher at day 1 (median 92.6 ng/ml), which took place 35 h after human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration and just before the retrieval of oocytes, than those before day -6 (12.1 ng/ml), at day -5 to about day 0 (17.5 ng/ml) or at day 2 to about day 14 (8.2 ng/ml). MIF concentrations in the follicular fluid (113.4 ng/ml) obtained in ovarian stimulation cycles for IVF-embryo transfer were significantly higher than in serum (72.0 ng/ml) collected at the same time. MIF concentrations in the follicular fluid in natural cycles were higher in the ovulatory phase (51.6 ng/ml) than in the late follicular phase (13.8 ng/ml). MIF concentrations in the culture media of granulosa cells increased from 3.2 ng/ml to 7.2 ng/ml with HCG stimulation, and decreased from 2.4 ng/ml to 1.2 ng/ml when stimulation was withheld. These results indicate that HCG can induce the elevation of serum and follicular fluid MIF concentrations through the stimulation of ovarian cells, and that MIF is probably involved in the mechanism of ovulation. (+info)
A 42-kDa glycoprotein from chicken egg-envelope, an avian homolog of the ZPC family glycoproteins in mammalian Zona pellucida. Its first identification, cDNA cloning and granulosa cell-specific expression.
A glycoprotein with molecular mass of 42 kDa was identified as the major component of the chicken egg-envelope, the filamentous, extracellular matrix known as the perivitelline layer. By using a DNA probe amplified with degenerative primers derived from the protein's partial amino acid sequences, a cDNA clone encoding the egg-envelope 42-kDa glycoprotein (gp42) was isolated from a hen's ovary cDNA library. The gp42 open reading frame encoded 435 amino acid residues, including a putative signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of gp42 showed significant similarity to egg-envelope glycoproteins of the ZPC family of several other vertebrate species, including human ZP3, mouse ZP3, Xenopus laevis gp43 and medaka (Oryzias latipes) ZI3 (LS-F), which play important roles for sperm-egg interaction. A single N-glycosylation site present in chicken gp42 is conserved among all five of these proteins: carbohydrate analysis of gp42 revealed the presence of a complex type glycan chain at this site. N-terminal sequence analysis of the mature polypeptide suggests that C-terminal processing of the pro-protein occurs during synthesis and secretion. The 1.4-kb gp42 transcript was detected only in follicles, and was found to be accumulated in granulosa cells in a manner dependent on ovarian follicular development. Furthermore, a metabolically radio-labeled gp42 was immunopreciptated from both cell lysate and culture supernatant of the granulosa cells with specific anti-gp42 antibody, suggesting granulosa cell-specific synthesis and secretion of the glycoprotein. (+info)
Expression of granulosa cell-specific genes and induction of apoptosis in conditionally immortalized granulosa cell lines established from H-2Kb-tsA58 transgenic mice.
Granulosa cell lines have been established from H-2Kb-tsA58 transgenic mice. Using immunocytochemistry, significant amounts of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were found in all cell lines investigated, whereas estrogen and progesterone receptor expression could be detected in only some of the lines. All cell lines showed low basal production of the gonadal steroids estradiol and progesterone. The genes for the ovarian paracrine regulators IGF-I and basic fibroblast growth factor were expressed, as well as the genes for anti-Mullerian hormone and for the P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc). Expression of P450scc could be shown to be up-regulated in the cell lines under conditions mimicking the hormonal environment of the luteinizing granulosa cells in vivo. Inactivation of the temperature-sensitive SV40 T antigen by a shift of the cell lines to the nonpermissive temperature of 39.5 degrees C led to massive induction of apoptosis in several cell lines. These cell lines will allow a detailed study of the mechanisms regulating the expression of granulosa cell-specific functions, as well as the induction of granulosa cell apoptosis. (+info)