Granulomatous inflammatory response to recombinant filarial proteins of Brugia species.
The lymphatic inflammatory response in Brugia-infected jirds peaks early during primary infections and then decreases in severity as judged by the numbers of lymph thrombi present within these vessels. Antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions in these animals was measured by a pulmonary granulomatous inflammatory response (PGRN) induced by somatic adult worm antigen (SAWA)-coated beads, and by cellular proliferative responses of renal lymph node cells. The kinetics of these responses temporally correspond to lymphatic lesion formation. The importance of any single antigen to the induction of this inflammatory response has not been elucidated. In this study, the PGRN was used to measure the cellular immune response to four recombinant filarial proteins during the course of a primary B. pahangi infection. These proteins were BpL4, glycoprotein (glutathione peroxidase) gp29, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, and filarial chitinase. All were fusion proteins of maltose-binding protein (MBP). Control beads included those coated with diethanolamine (DEA), SAWA, or MBP. The measurements of PRGN were made at 14, 28, 56, and > 150 days postinfection (PI) in infected jirds, in jirds sensitized with SAWA, and in uninfected jirds. The secretory homolog of glutathione peroxidase gp29 was the only recombinant protein tested that induced a significantly greater PGRN (P < 0.05) than controls. This was seen at 28 days PI. These observations indicate that gp29 may be part of the worm antigen complex that induces an early inflammatory response, a response similar to that observed with SAWA. These studies indicate that this approach is useful in investigating the functional ability of specific proteins in the induction and down-regulation of immune-mediated inflammatory responses elicited by filarial parasites. Absence of a granulomatous response to the other recombinant proteins used may be related to the nature and sensitivity of the assay used or the character of recombinant proteins tested. (+info)
Structural deficiencies in granuloma formation in TNF gene-targeted mice underlie the heightened susceptibility to aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, which is not compensated for by lymphotoxin.
TNF and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT alpha) may act at various stages of the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To dissect the effects of TNF independent of LT alpha, we have used C57BL/6 mice with a disruption of the TNF gene alone (TNF-/-). Twenty-one days following aerosol M. tuberculosis infection there was a marked increase in the number of organisms in the lungs of TNF-/- mice, and by 28-35 days all animals had succumbed, with widespread dissemination of M. tuberculosis. In comparison with the localized granulomas containing activated macrophages and T cells in lungs and livers of C57BL/6 wild-type (wt) mice, cellular infiltrates in TNF-/- mice were poorly formed, with extensive regions of necrosis and neutrophilic infiltration of the alveoli. Phenotypic analysis of lung homogenates demonstrated similar numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in TNF-/- and wt mice, but in TNF-deficient mice the lymphocytes were restricted to perivascular and peribronchial areas rather than colocated with macrophages in granulomas. T cells from TNF-/- mice retained proliferative and cytokine responses to purified protein derivative, and delayed-type hypersensitivity to purified protein derivative was demonstrable. Macrophages within the lungs of TNF-/- and wt mice showed similar levels of MHC class II and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and levels of serum nitrite were comparable. Thus, the enhanced susceptibility of TNF-/- is not compensated for by the presence of LT alpha, and the critical role of TNF is not in the activation of T cells and macrophages but in the local organization of granulomas. (+info)
T1/ST2 expression is enhanced on CD4+ T cells from schistosome egg-induced granulomas: analysis of Th cell cytokine coexpression ex vivo.
Th cells are categorized into subsets based on the cytokine production of in vitro-differentiated Th populations. For in vivo-differentiated Th subsets, little is known about the heterogeneity of cytokine production in single cells. We recently described a molecule, T1/ST2, that is preferentially expressed on the surface of Th2 cells. Here we combined high-gradient magnetic cell separation with four-color single-cell cytometry to analyze simultaneously three intracellular cytokines and T1/ST2 surface expression on CD4+ cells from lungs containing granulomas induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggs. T1/ST2 was highly up-regulated on CD4+ T cells from hepatic granulomas and granulomatous lungs. T1/ST2+ cells from granulomatous lungs preferentially produced type 2 cytokines ex vivo. In the total CD4+ population, coexpression of type 1 and type 2 cytokines occurred frequently. However, such coproduction was drastically reduced in T1/ST2+ cells compared with T1/ST2- cells. Coexpression of type 1 and type 2 cytokines was also rare in cells simultaneously producing two cytokines of one type. These findings indicate that individual CD4+ T cells in vivo have different levels of commitment to a certain Th phenotype. Coexpression of two type 2 cytokines or production of one type 2 cytokine together with surface expression of T1/ST2 indicate advanced commitment to the Th2 phenotype. (+info)
A novel role for the major histocompatibility complex class II transactivator CIITA in the repression of IL-4 production.
Class II transactivator (CIITA) is known as a coactivator for MHC class II gene expression in antigen-presenting cells. Surprisingly, when CIITA-/- CD4 T cells were stimulated in the presence of IL-12, they produced not only IFNgamma but also high levels of IL-4. The IL-4 production is due to the accumulation of IL-4 gene transcripts in Th1 cells. This transcriptional control is observed in T cells differentiating to the Th1 but not Th2 lineage, consistent with induction of expression of the CIITA gene in T cells by IFNgamma. Thus, in addition to its role in transactivation of genes involved in antigen presentation, CIITA plays a critical role during the T cell differentiation by negatively regulating the IL-4 gene transcription. (+info)
Functional roles of MCP-1 in Propionibacterium acnes-induced, T cell-mediated pulmonary granulomatosis in rabbits.
The immunological manifestation of granuloma formations in humans largely depends on the delayed-type hypersensitivity response. We investigated the involvement of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in a rabbit model of T cell-mediated pulmonary granulomatosis. Intravenous injection of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) into sensitized rabbits induced massive and diffuse pulmonary granulomas. Levels of MCP-1 in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) peaked before the granuloma formation reached the peak (on days 1 and 3 after challenge, respectively). Chemotactic activities toward monocytes and T cells in BALF were inhibited by anti-MCP-1 IgG by 80 and 36%, respectively. The phenotypic analysis of the migrating T cells revealed that activated and memory T cells rather than naive cells were preferentially attracted to the BALF. Administration of anti-MCP-1 antiserum inhibited the development of granuloma formation in both size and number, the numbers of infiltrating leukocytes in BALF, the expression of adhesion molecules on peripheral monocytes/T cells, and on macrophages/T cells in BALF, and the production of TNF-alpha in the lung. Anti-MCP-1 resulted in a trend toward decreased level of IL-1beta in the lung. The inhibition of the production of these cytokines appeared to be induced indirectly through the inhibition of the recruitment of macrophages that produce these cytokines. The results suggest important roles of MCP-1 in the development of granuloma formation in this model through the attraction and activation of specific types of cells. (+info)
Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis in a 14-yr-old female.
A case of a 14-yr-old female with necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis (NSG) is presented. She was referred because of chest pain and malaise, and radiography revealed multiple pulmonary nodules. Her history showed seasonal sensitization to aeroallergens and hay fever. Infectious agents or malignancies did not characterize these nodules. However, she was treated with macrolide antibiotics because of suspected infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. Open lung biopsy showed histological findings of NSG, with epithelioid granulomatous inflammation, including giant cells, and vasculitis. No further treatment was performed, and symptoms disappeared within a few weeks. The chest radiograph showed gradual improvement. The aetiology of NSG is poorly understood, and is postulated to represent either sarcoidosis or rare forms of pulmonary vasculitis such as Wegener's granulomatosis or the Churg-Strauss syndrome. In the case presented, a coincidence of infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae suggests an involvement of infectious agents in the pattern of formation of immune complexes in the aetiology of NSG. (+info)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis CDC1551 induces a more vigorous host response in vivo and in vitro, but is not more virulent than other clinical isolates.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis CDC1551, a clinical isolate reported to be hypervirulent and to grow faster than other isolates, was compared with two other clinical isolates (HN60 and HN878) and two laboratory strains (H37Rv and Erdman). The initial (1-14 days) growth of CDC1551, HN60, HN878, and H37Rv was similar in the lungs of aerosol-infected mice, but growth of Erdman was slower. Thereafter, the growth rate of CDC1551 decreased relative to the other strains which continued to grow at comparable rates up to day 21. In the lungs of CDC1551-infected mice, small well-organized granulomas with high levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-gamma mRNA were apparent sooner than in lungs of mice infected with the other strains. CDC1551-infected mice survived significantly longer. These findings were confirmed in vitro. The growth rates of H37Rv and CDC1551 in human monocytes were the same, but higher levels of TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 were induced in monocytes after infection with CDC1551 or by exposure of monocytes to lipid fractions from CDC1551. CD14 expression on the surface of the monocytes was up-regulated to a greater extent by exposure to the lipids of CDC1551. Thus, CDC1551 is not more virulent than other M. tuberculosis isolates in terms of growth in vivo and in vitro, but it induces a more rapid and robust host response. (+info)
Viral infection modulates expression of hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a granulomatous, inflammatory lung disease caused by inhalation of organic Ags, most commonly thermophilic actinomycetes that cause farmer's lung disease. The early response to Ag is an increase in neutrophils in the lung, whereas the late response is a typical Th1-type granulomatous disease. Many patients who develop disease report a recent viral respiratory infection. These studies were undertaken to determine whether viruses can augment the inflammatory responses in HP. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the thermophilic bacteria Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (SR) for 3 consecutive days per wk for 3 wk. Some mice were exposed to SR at 2 wk after infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), whereas others were exposed to SR after exposure to saline alone or to heat-inactivated RSV. SR-treated mice developed a typical, early neutrophil response and a late granulomatous inflammatory response. Up-regulation of IFN-gamma and IL-2 gene expression was also found during the late response. These responses were augmented by recent RSV infection but not by heat-inactivated RSV. Mice with a previous RSV infection also had a greater early neutrophil response to SR, with increased macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2, murine equivalent of IL-8) release in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These studies suggest that viral infection can augment both the early and late inflammatory responses in HP. (+info)