Midline destructive lesions of the sinonasal tract: simplified terminology based on histopathologic criteria.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Destructive lesions of the sinonasal tract, lacking a discernible etiology and referred to as midline destructive disease, have been pathologically classified in accordance with a variety of confusing terms. Development of new pathologic concepts and immunohistochemical techniques has provided a fresh understanding of these lesions, and, as a result, they can be unified into two distinct pathologic groups: Wegener's granulomatosis and non-Hodgkin's T-cell lymphoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies and pathologic specimens of seven patients with prior diagnoses included in the midline destructive disease group. The specimens were reviewed by an oral pathologist using currently accepted pathologic criteria and the newly available immunohistochemical markers CD20, CD45, and CD45RO. Lesions were classified as non-Hodgkin's T-cell lymphomas when positive for CD45 and CD45RO and negative for CD20, and as Wegener's granulomatosis in the presence of noncaseating multinucleated giant cell granulomas and necrotizing vasculitis. RESULTS: Three of the lesions were reclassified as Wegener's granulomatosis and four as T-cell lymphomas after applying these pathologic criteria. There were no distinguishing imaging findings between Wegener's granulomatosis and non-Hodgkin's T-cell lymphoma. CONCLUSION: The current pathologic classification for midline destructive disease should be incorporated into the radiologic lexicon and the use of terms from the old classification system, such as idiopathic midline granuloma and lethal midline granuloma, should be abandoned and no longer be used in radiologic reports. (+info)
Characterization of novel natural killer (NK)-cell and gammadelta T-cell lines established from primary lesions of nasal T/NK-cell lymphomas associated with the Epstein-Barr virus.
Studies on nasal T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma have been hampered by its tendency to cause necrosis. Thus, the establishment of cell lines of this neoplasm would seem to be valuable. This study attempted to establish cell lines from primary lesions of this tumor, and successfully obtained 2 novel Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cell lines, SNK-6 and SNT-8, by means of high-dose recombinant interleukin 2. Flow cytometry showed that SNK-6 had an NK-cell phenotype, CD3- CD4- CD8- CD19- CD56+ T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha/beta- TCR gamma/delta-, whereas SNT-8 was CD3+ CD4- CD8- CD19- CD56+ TCR alpha/beta- TCR gamma/delta+. These were consistent with immunophenotypes of their original tumors, and the cell lines had monoclonal EBV clones identical to ones in their original tumors. Thus, the cell lines developed from cells forming the primary lesions. Genotypic analysis showed that SNK-6 had unrearranged TCR and immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes, supporting the conclusion that SNK-6 was of NK-cell lineage. On the other hand, SNT-8 had rearranged TCR beta-, gamma-, and delta-chain genes, and together with its phenotype, SNT-8 proved to be a gammadelta T-cell line. This is the first report of the establishment of cell lines from primary lesions of nasal T/NK cell lymphomas, and the results demonstrated that there are at least 2 lineages, NK- and gammadelta T-cell, in this neoplasm. Moreover, it has been suggested that nasal T/NK cell lymphomas of these lineages may belong to the same clinicopathologic entity because both types of cases shared common clinical and histopathologic features. (+info)
Frequent mutations of Fas gene in nasal NK/T cell lymphoma.
Fas (Apo-1/CD95) is a cell-surface receptor involved in cell death signaling through binding of Fas ligand. Mutation of Fas gene in lymphoid cells results in accumulation of these cells, which might thus contribute to lymphomagenesis. We examined the open reading frame of Fas cDNA in 14 cases of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma. Mutations of Fas gene were detected in seven (50%) of 14 cases which comprised four frameshift, two missense, and one silent mutations. Frameshift mutations were caused by insertion of 1 bp (A) at nucleotide 1095 in two cases and by deletion of 1 bp at nucleotide 597 and at 704, respectively, in one each. Mouse T-cell lymphoma cells transfected with two missense mutated genes and frameshift mutations caused by insertion of 1 bp (A) at nucleotide 1095 were resistant to apoptosis induced by the anti-Fas antibody. These findings suggested that accumulation of lymphoid cells with Fas mutations provides a basis for the development of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma. (+info)
Re-irradiation of a second localization of idiopathic midline destructive disease in the head and neck area.
Idiopathic midline destructive disease is a rare disease, characterized by a progressive ulceration and destruction of midline facial structures. We report a case with localization on the palate for which she received radiotherapy. Later she developed a second localization on the posterior pharyngeal wall for which she was re-irradiated, without severe sequels. Twice a complete regression was observed. (+info)
Nasal NK/T cell lymphoma presenting as a lethal midline granuloma.
Nasal NK/T cell lymphomas are aggressive, locally destructive, midfacial, necrotizing lesions. The nonspecific clinical symptoms constitute a major stumbling block in the early diagnosis and management of these lymphomas. We report here a case of probable nasal NK/T cell lymphoma in an apparently healthy male that progressed rapidly in a short span of time and was managed subsequently with chemotherapy and external beam irradiation with which the lesion regressed. (+info)
Functional characterization of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with cocaine-induced midline destructive lesions.