Systemic infection with Alaria americana (Trematoda).
Alaria americana is a trematode, the adult of which is found in mammalian carnivores. The first case of disseminated human infection by the mesocercarial stage of this worm occurred in a 24-year-old man. The infection possibly was acquired by the eating of inadequately cooked frogs, which are intermediate hosts of the worm. The diagnosis was made during life by lung biopsy and confirmed at autopsy. The mesocercariae were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes, liver, myocardium, pancreas and surrounding adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain and spinal cord. There was no host reaction to the parasites. Granulomas were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes and liver, but the worms were not identified in them. Hypersensitivity vasculitis and a bleeding diathesis due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and a circulating anticoagulant caused his death 8 days after the onset of his illness. (+info)
Enhanced Th1 and dampened Th2 responses synergize to inhibit acute granulomatous and fibrotic responses in murine schistosomiasis mansoni.
In murine schistosomiasis mansoni, CD4(+) Th1 and Th2 cells participate in the ovum-induced granulomatous inflammation. Previous studies showed that the interleukin-12 (IL-12)-induced Th1 response strongly suppressed the Th2-cell-mediated pulmonary granuloma development in naive or primed mice. However, liver granulomas were only moderately suppressed in egg-vaccinated, recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12)-treated infected mice. The present study shows that repeated rIL-12 injections given during early granuloma development at 5 to 7 weeks after infection prolonged the Th1 phase and resulted in gamma interferon-mediated suppression of liver granulomas. The timing is crucial: if given at 6 to 8 weeks, during the Th2-dominated phase of florid granuloma growth, the treatment is ineffective. Daily injections of rIL-12 given between 5 and 7.5 weeks during the period of granuloma growth achieved a somewhat-stronger diminution in granuloma growth with less deposition of collagen but caused 60% mortality and liver pathology. In contrast, combined treatment with rIL-12 and anti-IL-4-anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody (MAb) injections given during the Th2 phase strongly inhibited liver granuloma growth without mortality. The diminished inflammatory response was accompanied by less deposition of collagen in the liver. Moreover, neutralization of endogenous IL-12 by anti-IL-12 MAbs effectively decreased the early Th1 phase (between 5 and 6 weeks after infection) but not the developing Th2 phase (5 to 7 weeks) of granuloma development. These studies indicate that the granulomatous response in infected mice can be manipulated by utilizing the Th1-Th2-subset antagonism with potential salutary results in the amelioration of fibrous pathology. (+info)
N,N'-Diacetyl-L-cystine-the disulfide dimer of N-acetylcysteine-is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity/delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in rodents.
Oral N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used clinically for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NAC is easily oxidized to its disulfide. We show here that N,N'-diacetyl-L-cystine (DiNAC) is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity (CS)/delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in rodents. Oral treatment of BALB/c mice with 0.003 to 30 micromol/kg DiNAC leads to enhancement of a CS reaction to oxazolone; DiNAC is 100 to 1000 times more potent than NAC in this respect, indicating that it does not act as a prodrug of NAC. Structure-activity studies suggest that a stereochemically-defined disulfide element is needed for activity. The DiNAC-induced enhancement of the CS reaction is counteracted by simultaneous NAC-treatment; in contrast, the CS reaction is even more enhanced in animals treated with DiNAC together with the glutathione-depleting agent buthionine sulfoximine. These data suggest that DiNAC acts via redox processes. Immunohistochemically, ear specimens from oxazolone-sensitized and -challenged BALB/c mice treated with DiNAC display increased numbers of CD8(+) cells. DiNAC treatment augments the CS reaction also when fluorescein isothiocyanate is used as a sensitizer in BALB/c mice; this is a purported TH2 type of response. However, when dinitrofluorobenzene is used as a sensitizer, inducing a purported TH1 type of response, DiNAC treatment reduces the reaction. Treatment with DiNAC also reduces a DTH footpad-swelling reaction to methylated BSA. Collectively, these data indicate that DiNAC in vivo acts as a potent and effective immunomodulator that can either enhance or reduce the CS or DTH response depending on the experimental conditions. (+info)
The requirement of an adherent cell substratum for the growth of developing plasmacytoma cells in vivo.
The intraperitoneal injection of pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) produces an environment conductive to primary plasmacytoma growth in as few as 3 days. After pristane injection, the total free peritoneal cell population increases from a normal value of 1.55 X 10(6) to 5.28 X 10(6) and remains at this elevated level for at least 50 days. The adherent peritoneal cell population, composed of both mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is the primary source of this increase. In the pristane-conditioned peritoneum, these cells rapidly form a chronic granuloma on the peritoneal connective tissues. Daily subcutaneous treatment of mice with 0.5 mg of hydrocortisone beginning simultaneously with pristane injection prevents the increase in the peritoneal cell population, granuloma formation, d the production of a conditoned environment. In mice treated with hydrocortisone beginning 3 days after pristane injection, however, neither the peritoneal cell increase nor the production of a conditioned environment is prevented. The intraperitoneal injection of thioglycolate medium at 4-day intervals produces an elevation of the free adherent peritoneal cell population similar to pristane, but does not produce a granuloma or a conditioned environment. The intraperitoneal transfer of thioglycolate-induced adherent peritonel cells to mice treated with pristane and hydrocortisone simultaneously restores the production of a conditioned environment. These findings indicate that the adherent peritoneal cell population is responsible for the conditioning effect, and that the establishment of a resident population of these cells is necessary to produce conditioning. (+info)
Experimental murine schistosomiasis in the absence of B7 costimulatory molecules: reversal of elicited T cell cytokine profile and partial inhibition of egg granuloma formation.
The granulomatous inflammation in infection with the helminth Schistosoma mansoni represents a cellular hypersensitivity reaction mediated by, and dependent upon, MHC class II-restricted CD4+ Th cells sensitized to parasite egg Ags. The current work examines the role and significance of the B7:CD28/CTLA-4 pathway in providing the costimulation necessary for the activation of these pathogenic T cells. In vitro T cell responses in B7-1-/- mice, 7-8 wk postinfection, were no different from wild-type controls, but the absence of B7-2 molecules resulted in a decrease in egg Ag-induced proliferation with increased IFN-gamma production. Both B7-1-/- and B7-2-/- mice exhibited intact granuloma formation. In contrast, CD4+ Th cells from B7-1/2 double-deficient mice displayed a dramatic loss of proliferative capacity upon stimulation with egg Ag. Most strikingly, these T cells secreted only IFN-gamma, but not IL-4 and IL-10, a pattern entirely opposite to that displayed by wild-type controls. Despite these major differences in T cell reactivity, B7-1/2-/- mice had only a limited reduction of granuloma size and fibrosis, without appreciable difference in cellular composition. These results show that substantial granuloma formation can occur under conditions of limited T cell expansion and restricted Th1-type cytokine production. They also support the notion that the combined effect of B7 signaling is not as critical for Th1 cell activation as it is for the development of the Th2 dominant environment characteristic of the evolving schistosome infection in H-2b mice. (+info)
Role of macrophage scavenger receptors in hepatic granuloma formation in mice.
In mice homozygous for the gene mutation for type I and type II macrophage scavenger receptors (MSR-A), MSR-A-/-, the formation of hepatic granulomas caused by a single intravenous injection of heat-killed Corynebacterium parvum was delayed significantly for 10 days after injection, compared with granuloma formation in wild-type (MSR-A+/+) mice. In the early stage of granuloma formation, numbers of macrophages and their precursor cells were significantly reduced in MSR-A-/- mice compared with MSR-A+/+ mice. In contrast to MSR-A+/+ mice, no expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma mRNA was observed in MSR-A-/- mice by 3 days after injection. Also in MSR-A-/- mice, uptake of C. parvum by Kupffer cells and monocyte-derived macrophages in the early stage of granuloma formation was lower and elimination of C. parvum from the liver was slower than in MSR-A+/+ mice. In the livers of MSR-A+/+ mice, macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells possessed MSR-A, but this was not seen in the livers of MSR-A-/- mice. In both MSR-A-/- and MSR-A+/+ mice, expression of other scavenger receptors was demonstrated. These data suggest that MSR-A deficiency impairs the uptake and elimination of C. parvum by macrophages and delays hepatic granuloma formation, particularly in the early stage. (+info)
The p47(phox-/-) mouse model of chronic granulomatous disease has normal granuloma formation and cytokine responses to Mycobacterium avium and Schistosoma mansoni eggs.
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetic disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generating reactive oxidants. CGD patients suffer from recurrent infections and exuberant and persistent tissue granuloma formation. We hypothesized that abnormal granulomata in CGD may result from aberrant T-cell-mediated cytokine responses. To assess Th-1-type cytokine responses and granulomata, we challenged p47(phox-/-) and wild-type mice with avirulent (SmD) or virulent (SmT) variants of Mycobacterium avium 2-151. To assess Th-2-type cytokine responses and granulomata, we used Schistosoma mansoni eggs (SME). Mononuclear cells were harvested, and cytokine responses were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or reverse transcriptase PCR. Following SmD or SmT challenge, splenocytes from p47(phox-/-) and wild-type mice generated similar polar Th-1 responses (increased levels of gamma interferon and basal levels of interleukin 4 [IL-4] and IL-5). By 8 weeks after SmT challenge, exuberant splenic granulomata developed in p47(phox-/-) and wild-type mice. After SME challenge, thoracic lymph node mononuclear cells from p47(phox-/-) and wild-type mice generated similar mixed Th-1 and Th-2 cytokine responses to SME antigen and concanavalin A. Peak lung granuloma sizes and rates of regression were similar in p47(phox-/-) and wild-type mice. These results suggest that exuberant granulomatous inflammation in CGD is probably not the result of skewing of T-cell responses toward the Th-1 or Th-2 pole. Appropriate regression of established tissue granulomata in p47(phox-/-) mice challenged with SME suggests that abnormal granuloma formation in CGD is stimulus dependent and is not an invariant feature of the disease. (+info)
Sarcoidosis of the upper respiratory tract and its association with lupus pernio.
In a series of 34 patients with sarcoidosis affecting the upper respiratory tract and nose, 26 had lupus pernio (LP) and 17 had sarcoidosis of the upper respiratory tract (SURT). In nine patients these features coexisted. A patient presenting with SURT carried a 50% risk of developing LP although one feature could be present without the other. Both were disorders of women of the child-bearing years of life. SURT, like LP, was an indicator of chronic fibrotic sarcoidosis, developing insidiously and progressing indolently over the years. It was complicated by ulceration, septal perforation, and LP. Three patients had nasal septal perforations, in two instances following submucous resection. This operation is contraindicated in patients with active sarcoidosis, particularly when granulomas are found on nasal biopsy. The Kveim-Siltzbach skin test was positive in all patients with SURT, making it invaluable in the differential diagnosis of granuloma of the nasal cavity. (+info)