In vivo activities of peptidic prodrugs of novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl-1 beta-methylcarbapenems.
A series of novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl (THF)-1 beta-methylcarbapenems which have excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial activities exhibit modest efficacies against acute lethal infections (3.8 mg/kg of body weight against Escherichia coli and 0.9 mg/kg against Staphylococcus aureus) in mice when they are administered orally. In an effort to improve the efficacies of orally administered drugs through enhanced absorption by making use of a peptide-mediated transport system, several different amino acids were added at the aminomethyl THF side chains of the carbapenem molecules. The resulting peptidic prodrugs with L-amino acids demonstrated improved efficacy after oral administration, while the D forms were less active than the parent molecules. After oral administration increased (3 to 10 times) efficacy was exhibited with the alanine-, valine-, isoleucine-, and phenylalanine-substituted prodrugs against acute lethal infections in mice. Median effective doses (ED50s) of < 1 mg/kg against infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, or penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae were obtained after the administration of single oral doses. Several of the peptidic prodrugs were efficacious against Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. coli infections, with ED50s of 1 to 14 mg/kg by oral administration compared with ED50s of 14 to > 32 mg/kg for the parent molecules. In general, the parent molecules demonstrated greater efficacy than the prodrugs against these same infections when the drugs were administered by the subcutaneous route. The parent molecule was detectable in the sera of mice after oral administration of the peptidic prodrugs. (+info)
Identification of a novel group of bacteria in sludge from a deteriorated biological phosphorus removal reactor.
The microbial diversity of a deteriorated biological phosphorus removal reactor was investigated by methods not requiring direct cultivation. The reactor was fed with media containing acetate and high levels of phosphate (P/C weight ratio, 8:100) but failed to completely remove phosphate in the effluent and showed very limited biological phosphorus removal activity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA was used to investigate the bacterial diversity. Up to 11 DGGE bands representing at least 11 different sequence types were observed; DNA from the 6 most dominant of these bands was further isolated and sequenced. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the partial 16S rRNA sequences suggested that one sequence type was affiliated with the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria, one was associated with the Legionella group of the gamma subclass of the Proteobacteria, and the remaining four formed a novel group of the gamma subclass of the Proteobacteria with no close relationship to any previously described species. The novel group represented approximately 75% of the PCR-amplified DNA, based on the DGGE band intensities. Two oligonucleotide rRNA probes for this novel group were designed and used in a whole-cell hybridization analysis to investigate the abundance of this novel group in situ. The bacteria were coccoid and 3 to 4 microm in diameter and represented approximately 35% of the total population, suggesting a relatively close agreement with the results obtained by the PCR-based DGGE method. Further, based on electron microscopy and standard staining microscopic analysis, this novel group was able to accumulate granule inclusions, possibly consisting of polyhydroxyalkanoate, inside the cells. (+info)
Pulsed-light inactivation of food-related microorganisms.
The effects of high-intensity pulsed-light emissions of high or low UV content on the survival of predetermined populations of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. Bacterial cultures were seeded separately on the surface of tryptone soya-yeast extract agar and were reduced by up to 2 or 6 log10 orders with 200 light pulses (pulse duration, approximately 100 ns) of low or high UV content, respectively (P < 0.001). (+info)
Class I integrons in Gram-negative isolates from different European hospitals and association with decreased susceptibility to multiple antibiotic compounds.
Class I integrons are associated with carriage of genes encoding resistance to antibiotics. Expression of inserted resistance genes within these structures can be poor and, as such, the clinical relevance in terms of the effect of integron carriage on susceptibility has not been investigated. Of 163 unrelated Gram-negative isolates randomly selected from the intensive care and surgical units of 14 different hospitals in nine European countries, 43.0% (70/163) of isolates were shown to be integron-positive, with inserted gene cassettes of various sizes. Integrons were detected in isolates from all hospitals with no particular geographical variations. Integron-positive isolates were statistically more likely to be resistant to aminoglycoside, quinolone and beta8-lactam compounds, including third-generation cephalosporins and monobactams, than integron-negative isolates. Integron-positive isolates were also more likely to be multi-resistant than integron-negative isolates. This association implicates integrons in multi-drug resistance either directly through carriage of specific resistance genes, or indirectly by virtue of linkage to other resistance determinants such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes. As such their widespread presence is a cause for concern. There was no association between the presence of integrons and susceptibility to cefepime, amikacin and the carbapenems, to which at least 97% of isolates were fully susceptible. (+info)
Killing kinetics of intracellular Afipia felis treated with amikacin.
Afipia felis is a facultative intracellular bacterium which multiplies in macrophages following inhibition of phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion. When A. felis-infected cells are incubated for 72 h with various antibiotics, only aminoglycosides are found to be bactericidal. We therefore studied the killing of intracellular A. felis by amikacin, and its relationship with the restoration of P-L fusion. Amikacin reduced the number of A. felis from 8.5 x 10(5) to 3.5 x 102 cfu/mL within 94 h. P-L fusion was restored after 30-40 h of incubation with amikacin. Both mechanisms may participate in the intracellular killing of bacteria. (+info)
A GroEL homologue from endosymbiotic bacteria of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is implicated in the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus.
Evidence for the involvement of a Bemisia tabaci GroEL homologue in the transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is presented. A approximately 63-kDa protein was identified in B. tabaci whole-body extracts using an antiserum raised against aphid Buchnera GroEL. The GroEL homologue was immunolocalized to a coccoid-shaped whitefly endosymbiont. The 30 N-terminal amino acids of the whitefly GroEL homologue showed 80% homology with that from different aphid species and GroEL from Escherichia coli. Purified GroEL from B. tabaci exhibited ultrastructural similarities to that of the endosymbiont from aphids and E. coli. In vitro ligand assays showed that tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) particles displayed a specific affinity for the B. tabaci 63-kDa GroEL homologue. Feeding whiteflies anti-Buchnera GroEL antiserum before the acquisition of virions reduced TYLCV transmission to tomato test plants by >80%. In the haemolymph of these whiteflies, TYLCV DNA was reduced to amounts below the threshold of detection by Southern blot hybridization. Active antibodies were recovered from the insect haemolymph suggesting that by complexing the GoEL homologue, the antibody disturbed interaction with TYLCV, leading to degradation of the virus. We propose that GroEL of B. tabaci protects the virus from destruction during its passage through the haemolymph. (+info)
Molecular analysis of a novel methanesulfonic acid monooxygenase from the methylotroph Methylosulfonomonas methylovora.
Methylosulfonomonas methylovora M2 is an unusual gram-negative methylotrophic bacterium that can grow on methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as the sole source of carbon and energy. Oxidation of MSA by this bacterium is carried out by a multicomponent MSA monooxygenase (MSAMO). Cloning and sequencing of a 7.5-kbp SphI fragment of chromosomal DNA revealed four tightly linked genes encoding this novel monooxygenase. Analysis of the deduced MSAMO polypeptide sequences indicated that the enzyme contains a two-component hydroxylase of the mononuclear-iron-center type. The large subunit of the hydroxylase, MsmA (48 kDa), contains a typical Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] center with an unusual iron-binding motif and, together with the small subunit of the hydroxylase, MsmB (20 kDa), showed a high degree of identity with a number of dioxygenase enzymes. However, the other components of the MSAMO, MsmC, the ferredoxin component, and MsmD, the reductase, more closely resemble those found in other classes of oxygenases. MsmC has a high degree of identity to ferredoxins from toluene and methane monooxygenases, which are enzymes characterized by possessing hydroxylases containing mu-oxo bridge binuclear iron centers. MsmD is a reductase of 38 kDa with a typical chloroplast-like [2Fe-2S] center and conserved flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NAD-binding motifs and is similar to a number of mono- and dioxygenase reductase components. Preliminary analysis of the genes encoding MSAMO from a marine MSA-degrading bacterium, Marinosulfonomonas methylotropha, revealed the presence of msm genes highly related to those found in Methylosulfonomonas, suggesting that MSAMO is a novel type of oxygenase that may be conserved in all MSA-utilizing bacteria. (+info)
Lipopolyamines: novel antiendotoxin compounds that reduce mortality in experimental sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria.
The interactions of lipopolyamines, a class of structurally unique compounds currently being used as transfection (lipofection) agents, with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been characterized. Our studies have demonstrated that 1,3-di-oleoyloxy-2-(6-carboxyspermyl)-propylamide), available commercially as DOSPER, binds to purified LPS with an affinity of about 1/10 that of polymyxin B. This essentially nontoxic compound inhibits, in a dose-dependent manner, LPS-induced activation of the Limulus clotting cascade and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide from LPS-stimulated J774.A1 cells, a murine macrophage-like cell line. Cytokine inhibition is paralleled by decreased steady-state levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA and inhibits the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B. These findings suggest that the lipopolyamine compound sequesters LPS, thereby blocking downstream cellular activation events that lead to the production of proinflammatory mediators. Administration of DOSPER to D-galactosamine-sensitized mice challenged either with LPS or with Escherichia coli organisms provided significant protection against lethality both with and without antibiotic chemotherapy. Partial protection is evident in LPS-challenged mice treated with DOSPER as late as 2 to 4 h following the endotoxin challenge. A greater degree of protection is observed in E. coli-challenged animals receiving ceftazidime than in those receiving imipenem, which is probably attributable to the higher levels of LPS released in vivo by the former antibiotic. Potent antiendotoxic activity, low toxicity, and ease of synthesis render the lipopolyamines candidate endotoxin-sequestering agents of potential significant therapeutic value. (+info)