Ocular injuries from liquid golf ball cores.
Tissue removed from nine new cases from 18 hours to 20 weeks after injury by a golf ball contained crystalline and other foreign material to which there was a mild inflammatory reaction followed by macrophagic activity and fibrosis. Optical and electron probe analysis showed that the crystalline material was crushed barytes containing small quantities of muscovite as is typical in natural deposits. The centres of several golf balls were shown to contain essentially identical material. By contrast with previous reports, no zinc sulphide was found. The form and frequent location of the deposits in the conjunctiva as compared with cornea and eyelid is related to the structure of these tissues. (+info)
Physical activity and coronary heart disease risk in men: does the duration of exercise episodes predict risk?
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, it is unclear whether the duration of exercise episodes is important: Are accumulated shorter sessions as predictive of decreased risk as longer sessions if the same amount of energy is expended? METHODS AND RESULTS: In the Harvard Alumni Health Study, we prospectively followed 7307 Harvard University alumni (mean age 66.1 years) from 1988 through 1993. At baseline, men reported their walking, stair climbing, and participation in sports or recreational activities. For each of the latter activities, they also reported the frequency and average duration per episode. During follow-up, 482 men developed CHD. In age-adjusted analysis, a longer duration of exercise episodes predicted lower CHD risk (P: trend=0.04). However, after total energy expended on physical activity and potential confounders was accounted for, duration no longer had an independent effect on CHD risk (P: trend=0.25); that is, longer sessions of exercise did not have a different effect on risk compared with shorter sessions, as long as the total energy expended was similar. In contrast, higher levels of total energy expenditure significantly predicted decreased CHD risk in both age-adjusted (P: trend=0.009) and multivariate (P: trend=0.046) analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These data clearly indicate that physical activity is associated with decreased CHD risk. Furthermore, they lend some support to recent recommendations that allow for the accumulation of shorter sessions of physical activity, as opposed to requiring 1 longer, continuous session of exercise. This may provide some impetus for those sedentary to become more active. (+info)
Warm up practices of golfers: are they adequate?
BACKGROUND: Although it is widely recommended that golfers warm up before play or practice to enhance their physical performance and reduce their injury risk, it is not known to what extent they actually undertake such warm up procedures. OBJECTIVE: To collect information about the proportion of golfers who actively warm up and to determine the types of warm up behaviours. METHODS: This study was conducted over three weeks at three different golfing venues: a private golf course, a public golf course, and a golf driving range. Golfers' warm up behaviours, defined as any form of preparative exercise, were recorded by direct observation by two independent observers. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1040 amateur golfers (852 men and 188 women) aged at least 18 years. Only 54.3% (95% confidence interval 49.8 to 58.8) performed some form of warm up activity. Air swings on the tee were the most commonly observed warm up activity, with 88.7% (95% confidence interval 85.9 to 91.5) of golfers who warmed up performing these. CONCLUSIONS: Only a small proportion of amateur golfers perform appropriate warm up exercises. To improve on this, golfers should be educated about the possible benefits of warming up and be shown how to perform an appropriate warm up routine. (+info)
Elbow injuries in golf.
Golf is not a sport known for its high injury level; however, injuries do occur. Such mishaps usually involve overuse-type injuries that are more common among amateur golfers than among professional golfers. This article attempts to provide an overview of golf injuries to the elbow, with a concentration on incidence, proper diagnosis, adequate treatment (including rehabilitation), and prevention strategies. After reading this article, primary care physicians should be able to manage most golfing injuries to the elbow. (+info)
Golf related head injuries in children.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence and severity of head injuries to children sustained by a blow from a golf club or ball and to highlight the potential for significant injury. An increase in public awareness of these risks might result in a reduction in morbidity. METHODS: Over a period of seven months, all children aged 3-13 years, attending the accident and emergency department with a head injury sustained from a golf club or ball had their case notes reviewed by the author. RESULTS: Thirty seven children, 78% of whom were boys, were identified as having sustained such a head injury, commonly during the school holiday months. Thirty three of the injuries were caused by golf clubs, the other four by a golf ball. Half of the injuries were to the frontal area. Twenty five children (68%) had skull radiographs but only one was positive--one child sustaining a compound depressed fracture of the frontal area. One child required cleaning and suturing of a wound under a general anaesthetic. A known epileptic child had a fit immediately after being hit on the head by a golf ball. Twenty two (60%) sustained lacerations that were repaired with steristrips or glue. Twelve had haematomas, seven complained of dizziness/drowsiness, and two had nausea/vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: Other authors have reported fatal head injuries, and it would seem that parents are unaware of the risks of serious and permanent head injury, with the potential for death, attributable to blows to the head from golf clubs and balls. The need for early tuition in the safety aspects of the game cannot be underestimated and parent and player education strategies are suggested as the main means of reducing injuries in this popular sport. (+info)
Soil nitrate monitoring for turfgrass sod farms and other turf areas.
Studies with established turf and golf courses have indicated minimal risk of nitrate pollution of groundwater resulting from turfgrass management, but soil nitrate flux in turfgrass sod production farms and golf courses has received less attention. Information about nitrate-N flux at a particular location can be helpful to the sod producer or the golf course manager when efficiently applying N fertilizers and minimizing risk of nitrate pollution. We used an ion exchange resin capsule system to continuously monitor soil nitrate-N fluxes at 12 sites in southern Rhode Island, including turfgrass sod production farms and a low-maintenance environment. Four capsules were placed in the soil at each site and retrieved at intervals coinciding with management and meteorological events to determine nitrate ion accumulation. We found that the golf course green exhibited significantly higher nitrate-N fluxes than the sod farms and the low-maintenance turf. There was significant interaction between sampling date and study site, indicating that seasonal variation in soil nitrate-N fluxes was affected by turfgrass management. The cultural practice of late fall fertilization to stimulate early spring growth in the following year appeared to present some risk of nitrate loss during the winter from the golf course greens in our region. We conclude that site-specific and time-relevant monitoring is needed to produce and manage turfgrasses in an environmentally sound manner. (+info)
Effect of putting grip on eye and head movements during the golf putting stroke.
The objective of this article is to determine the effect of three different putting grips (conventional, cross-hand, and one-handed) on variations in eye and head movements during the putting stroke. Seven volunteer novice players, ranging in age from 21 to 22 years, participated in the study. During each experimental session, the subject stood on a specially designed platform covered with artificial turf and putted golf balls towards a standard golf hole. The three different types of grips were tested at two distances: 3 and 9 ft. For each condition, 20 putts were attempted. For each putt, data were recorded over a 3-s interval at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. Eye movements were recorded using a helmet-mounted eye movement monitor. Head rotation about an imaginary axis through the top of the head and its center-of-rotation was measured by means of a potentiometer mounted on a fixed frame and coupled to the helmet. Putter-head motion was measured using a linear array of infrared phototransistors embedded in the platform. The standard deviation (STD, relative to the initial level) was calculated for eye and head movements over the duration of the putt (i.e., from the beginning of the backstroke, through the forward stroke, to impact). The averaged STD for the attempted putts was calculated for each subject. Then, the averaged STDs and other data for the seven subjects were statistically compared across the three grip conditions. The STD of eye movements were greater (p < 0.1) for conventional than cross-hand (9 ft) and one-handed (3 and 9 ft) grips. Also, the STD of head movements were greater (p < 0.1; 3 ft) for conventional than cross-hand and one-handed grips. Vestibulo-ocular responses associated with head rotations could be observed in many 9 ft and some 3 ft putts. The duration of the putt was significantly longer (p < 0.05; 3 and 9 ft) for the one-handed than conventional and cross-hand grips. Finally, performance, or percentage putts made, was significantly better (p < 0.05; 9 ft) for cross-hand than conventional grip. The smaller variations, both in eye movements during longer putts and head movements during shorter putts, using cross-hand and one-handed grips may explain why some golfers, based on their playing experience, prefer these over the conventional grip. Also, the longer duration for the one-handed grip, which improves tempo, may explain why some senior players prefer the long-shaft (effectively one-handed grip) putter. (+info)
The mind's eye: functional MR imaging evaluation of golf motor imagery.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mental imagery involves rehearsing or practicing a task in the mind with no physical movement. The technique is commonly used, but the actual physical foundation of imagery has not been evaluated for the fast, complex, automatic motor movement of the golf swing. This study evaluated motor imagery of the golf swing, of golfers of various handicaps, by using functional MR imaging to assess whether areas of brain activation could be defined by this technique and to define any association between activated brain areas and golf skill. METHODS: Six golfers of various handicap levels were evaluated with functional MR imaging during a control condition and during mental imagery of their golf swing. Two control conditions were evaluated--"rest" and "wall"--and were then subtracted from the experimental condition to give the functional activation map. These control conditions were then tested against the golf imagery; the participants were told to mentally rehearse their golf swings from a first person perspective. The percentages of activated pixels in 137 defined regions of interest were calculated. RESULTS: The "rest-versus-golf" paradigm showed activation in motor cortex, parietal cortex, frontal lobe, cerebellum, vermis, and action planning areas (frontal and parietal cortices, supplementary motor area, cerebellum) and areas involved with error detection (cerebellum). Vermis, supplementary motor area, cerebellum, and motor regions generally showed the greatest activation. Little activation was seen in the cingulate gyrus, right temporal lobe, deep gray matter, and brain stem. A correlation existed between increased number of areas of activation and increased handicap. CONCLUSION: This study showed the feasibility of defining areas of brain activation during imagery of a complex, coordinated motor task. Decreased brain activation occurred with increased golf skill level for the supplementary motor area and cerebellum with little activation of basal ganglia. (+info)