Endovascular irradiation from beta-particle-emitting gold stents results in increased neointima formation in a porcine restenosis model. (1/31)

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that ionizing radiation reduces neointima formation after balloon angioplasty and stent implantation in experimental models of restenosis and first clinical trials. The objective of this study was to determine the dose distribution of a new beta-particle-emitting radioactive gold stent and to evaluate the dose-dependent vascular response in the coronary overstretch pig model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen Gottinger minipigs underwent placement of 11 nonradioactive and 36 beta-particle-emitting stents with activity levels of 10.4+/-0.6, 14.9+/-2.4, 22.8+/-1.3, 35.8+/-2. 8, and 55.4+/-5.3 microCi of (198)Au. Three months after implantation, the percent area stenosis, neointimal thickness, neointimal area, and vessel injury were analyzed by quantitative histomorphometry. The lifetime radiation doses at a depth of 1 mm were 3.3+/-0.2, 4.7+/-0.5, 7.2+/-0.4, 11.4+/-0.9, and 17.6+/-1.7 Gy for the different activity groups. No dose-response relationship was observed in the radioactive stents with respect to percent area stenosis (P=0.297), mean neointimal thickness (P=0.82), or mean neointimal area (P=0.65). Significantly lower neointima formation and less luminal narrowing was seen in the control group than in the beta-particle-emitting stents (P<0.001). Multilinear regression analysis revealed that only radioactivity made a significant independent contribution to the degree of percent area stenosis (P<0. 001). CONCLUSIONS: Neointima formation in pigs is markedly increased by beta-particle-emitting stents with (198)Au as the radioisotope. This study provides evidence that dosages of 3 to 18 Gy of low-dose-rate beta-particle irradiation via endovascular stents cause pronounced luminal narrowing in the animal model at 3 months.  (+info)

Use of tissue-to-air ratio in computation of specific absorbed fraction. (2/31)

This paper describes a new approach for computing specific absorbed fractions that can be used for estimating doses that result from the internal administration of radiopharmaceuticals. This approach uses the concept of the tissue-to-air ratio (TAR) which can either be calculated or experimentally determined for the radionuclides of interest. Good agreement exists between the specific absorbed fraction values obtained using measured and computed values of TAR. This implies that the measured values of TAR can be used to obtain specific absorbed fractions for all radionuclides.  (+info)

Results of ovary tumor treatment with abdominally administered (198)Au evaluated on the basis of long term follow up. (3/31)

In the period between 1959 and 1980 165 patients previously operated with ovarian tumor were treated by intraperitoneally administered (198)Au in the Oncoradiological Centre of the Uzsoki Hospital. The stage distribution of the 158 patients with common epithelial histology was as it follows: Stage I/A 31; Stage I/B 9; Stage I/C 59; Stage II/A 19; Stage II/B 11; Stage II/C 7, Stage III/A 22. The five year survival result is the next: Stage I/A 90%; Stage I/B 78%; Stage I/C 58%; Stage II/A 26%; Stage II/B 27%; Stage II/C 14%; Stage III/A 18%. From the other 7 patients six had sex cord tumor and one lipid cell tumor. The number of the side effects is in good agreement with the data in literature. The use of (198)Au for intraperitoneal treatment of ovary tumors is not contemporary today because of gamma radiation of radiogold, but intraperitoneal radiation treatment should not be forgotten.  (+info)

Diagnosis of cirrhosis and hepatitis by quantitative hepatic and other reticuloendothelial clearance rates. (4/31)

Although methods for measuring colloid clearance rates have been described, they are not commonly used. Rather, most clinicians rely on the relative radiocolloid accummulation in the liver and spleen as estimated by visual inspection of liver scans. This method lacks objectivity, however, and only indirectly reflects the rate of radiocolloid clearance. We have developed a noninvasive kinetic technique for measuring radiocolloid clearance by the liver, spleen, and other reticuloendothelial tissues. The clerance-rate constants obtained by this technique appear to differentiate among cirrhosis, fatty metamorphosis, hepatitis, and normal function. In normal subjects, the mean clearance-rate constants for the liver, spleen, and extrahepatosplenic reticuloendothelial system were 16.0, 1.4, and 3.4 ml/min per 100 ml of plasma, respectively. The mean hepatic clearance-rate constant was normal in hepatitis (16.8 ml/min per 100 ml), reduced in cirrhosis (5.7), and slightly reduced in fatty metamorphosis (10.4). Both the hepatic-to-splenic and the hepatic-to-extrahepatosplenic ratios of clearance-rate constants were reduced in cirrhosis and slightly reduced in fatty metamorphosis and hepatitis. Interestingly, the splenic clearance-rate constants were normal in these three diseases.  (+info)

CT-guided stereotactic injection of radionuclide in treatment of brain tumors. (5/31)

140 patients with brain tumor were treated by CT-guided stereotactic injections of radionuclides, such as Aurum-198 (198 Au), Phosphorus-32 (32 P) and Yttrium-90 (90Y). Of these patients aged from 3 to 67 years (average 37), 64 were male and 76 female. Astrocytoma was found in 75 patients, craniopharyngioma in 46, metastatic carcinoma in 7, meningioma in 5, germinoma in 4 and pituitary adenoma in 3. The tumors were located in the deep part or functionally critical area of the brain. After 267 times of injection of colloidal isotopes, no major adverse effects or complications occurred. Follow-up for 6 to 48 months showed improvement in symptoms in 104 (74.3%) patients and CT scanning showed the diminished tumors.  (+info)

Post-irradiation vasculopathy of intracranial major arteries in children--report of two cases. (6/31)

We report two rare cases of post-irradiation vasculopathy of intracranial major arteries in children. A 13-year-old girl suffered from transient right hemiparesis 1 year after irradiation for suprasellar germinoma. Left carotid angiograms revealed marked stenoses of the intracranial internal carotid, middle cerebral, and anterior cerebral arteries, which were previously normal, and moyamoya vessels. A 2.5-year-old girl underwent internal irradiation with 198Au colloid for cystic craniopharyngioma. At the age of 10 years, she suddenly became unconscious after vomiting. Computed tomographic scans showed a right frontal intracerebral hematoma. Right carotid angiograms disclosed complete obstruction of the intracranial internal carotid, middle cerebral, and anterior cerebral arteries and moyamoya vessels, previously not present. The danger of radiation therapy causing occlusive vasculopathy in small and major cerebral arteries in children is emphasized. To prevent permanent ischemic neurological deficits, vasculopathy should be treated either medically or surgically as early as possible.  (+info)

Treatment of Nelson's syndrome by pituitary implantation of yttrium-90 or gold-198. (7/31)

Eight patients with Nelson's syndrome were treated with a pituitary implant of yttrium-90 or gold-198 four to 16 years after adrenal surgery. All had considerable pigmentation. One already had cranial nerve abnormalities and visual field defects and had had both a craniotomy and deep x-ray treatment. Radiographs showed that the pituitary fossa was abnormal in seven patients. A biopsy performed in six cases showed mucoid (or basophil) adenoma in all. In the four specimens examined ACTH was identified by electron microscopy or immunofluorescence, or both. Patients were followed up after pituitary implantation for three months to 12 years. All showed decreased pigmentation, and six became normal. Four patients regained normal ACTH levels and the other two studied had decreased levels. In no case did new cranial nerve disease or further sellar expansion develop since operation, and two patients showed remodelling of the sella. Complications were temporary leakage of cerebrospinal fluid and diabetes insipidus in one patient and gonadotrophin deficiency in another.  (+info)

Fabrication of {198Au0} radioactive composite nanodevices and their use for nanobrachytherapy. (8/31)