Resistance of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria cells to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-binding toxin aerolysin.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal stem cell disorder caused by a somatic mutation of the PIGA gene. The product of this gene is required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; therefore, the phenotypic hallmark of PNH cells is an absence or marked deficiency of all GPI-anchored proteins. Aerolysin is a toxin secreted by the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and is capable of killing target cells by forming channels in their membranes after binding to GPI-anchored receptors. We found that PNH blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and granulocytes), but not blood cells from normals or other hematologic disorders, are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of aerolysin. The percentage of lysis of PNH cells after aerolysin exposure paralleled the percentage of CD59(+) cells in the samples measured by flow cytometry. The kinetics of red blood cell lysis correlated with the type of PNH erythrocytes. PNH type III cells were completely resistant to aerolysin, whereas PNH type II cells displayed intermediate sensitivity. Importantly, the use of aerolysin allowed us to detect PNH populations that could not be detected by standard flow cytometry. Resistance of PNH cells to aerolysin allows for a simple, inexpensive assay for PNH that is sensitive and specific. Aerolysin should also be useful in studying PNH biology. (+info)
A sialoglycoprotein, gp20, of the human capacitated sperm surface is a homologue of the leukocyte CD52 antigen: analysis of the effect of anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody (CAMPATH-1) on capacitated spermatozoa.
In this study we performed N-terminal sequence analysis of gp20, a 20 kDa sialoglycoprotein on the human sperm surface previously identified by radiolabelling of the sialic acid residues of sperm surface. We found 100% identity with the N-terminus of CD52, an antigen expressed on almost all human leukocytes. We also show that, like CD52, gp20 behaves as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and that anti-gp20 antiserum reacts with an antigen on leukocytes of the same molecular weight as CD52. Using CAMPATH-1, the monoclonal antibody against CD52, in fluorescent staining of capacitated spermatozoa, Western blot analysis and the zona-free hamster egg penetration test, we found that the effect of this antibody was different from that of our anti-gp20. Western blot analysis revealed a well-defined 20 kDa band with anti-gp20, whereas a 14-20 kDa band was detected with CAMPATH-1. Anti-gp20 stained the equatorial region of the sperm head, whereas CAMPATH-1 stained the tail in immunofluorescence analysis of capacitated spermatozoa. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect was seen with CAMPATH-1, similar to that previously detected with anti-gp20, in a zona-free hamster egg penetration test. However, with CAMPATH-1 agglutination of motile spermatozoa was detected, and this was not present with anti-gp20. This suggests that the epitopes recognized by the two antibodies are different. (+info)
Treatment of mouse oocytes with PI-PLC releases 70-kDa (pI 5) and 35- to 45-kDa (pI 5.5) protein clusters from the egg surface and inhibits sperm-oolemma binding and fusion.
The effect of phosphatidyinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) on mouse sperm-egg interaction was investigated in this study to determine if glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are involved in mammalian fertilization. When both sperm and zona-intact oocytes were pretreated with a highly purified preparation of PI-PLC and coincubated, there was no significant effect on sperm-zona pellucida binding; however, fertilization was reduced from 59.6% (control group) to 2.8% (treatment group). A similar reduction in fertilization rates was found when zona-intact oocytes were treated with PI-PLC and washed prior to incubation with untreated sperm. The effect of PI-PLC on sperm binding and fusion with zona-free oocytes was then investigated. Treatment of sperm with PI-PLC had no significant effect on sperm-egg binding or fusion. However, treatment of eggs with PI-PLC significantly reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion from 6.2 bound and 2.1 fused sperm per egg in the control group to 2.1 bound and 0.02 fused sperm per egg in the treatment group. This decrease in sperm-egg binding and fusion depended on the dose of PI-PLC employed, with a maximal inhibitory effect on binding and fusion at 5 and 1 U/ml, respectively. PI-PLC-treated oocytes could be artificially activated by calcium ionophore, demonstrating that the oocytes were functionally viable following treatment. Furthermore, treatment of oocytes with PI-PLC did not reduce the immunoreactivity of the non-GPI-anchored egg surface integrin, alpha6beta1. Taken together, these observations support the hypothesis that PI-PLC affects fertilization by specifically releasing GPI-anchored proteins from the oolemma. In order to identify the oolemmal GPI-anchored proteins involved in fertilization, egg surface proteins were labeled with sulfo-NHS biotin, treated with PI-PLC, and analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by avidin blotting. A prominent high-molecular-weight protein cluster (approximately 70 kDa, pI 5) and a lower molecular weight (approximately 35-45 kDa, pI 5.5) protein cluster were released from the oolemmal surface as a result of PI-PLC treatment. It is likely that these GPI-anchored egg surface proteins are required for sperm-egg binding and fusion. (+info)
MCD4 encodes a conserved endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein essential for glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor synthesis in yeast.
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are cell surface-localized proteins that serve many important cellular functions. The pathway mediating synthesis and attachment of the GPI anchor to these proteins in eukaryotic cells is complex, highly conserved, and plays a critical role in the proper targeting, transport, and function of all GPI-anchored protein family members. In this article, we demonstrate that MCD4, an essential gene that was initially identified in a genetic screen to isolate Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants defective for bud emergence, encodes a previously unidentified component of the GPI anchor synthesis pathway. Mcd4p is a multimembrane-spanning protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and contains a large NH2-terminal ER lumenal domain. We have also cloned the human MCD4 gene and found that Mcd4p is both highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and has two yeast homologues. Mcd4p's lumenal domain contains three conserved motifs found in mammalian phosphodiesterases and nucleotide pyrophosphases; notably, the temperature-conditional MCD4 allele used for our studies (mcd4-174) harbors a single amino acid change in motif 2. The mcd4-174 mutant (1) is defective in ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins (i.e., Gas1p) while other proteins (i.e., CPY) are unaffected; (2) secretes and releases (potentially up-regulated cell wall) proteins into the medium, suggesting a defect in cell wall integrity; and (3) exhibits marked morphological defects, most notably the accumulation of distorted, ER- and vesicle-like membranes. mcd4-174 cells synthesize all classes of inositolphosphoceramides, indicating that the GPI protein transport block is not due to deficient ceramide synthesis. However, mcd4-174 cells have a severe defect in incorporation of [3H]inositol into proteins and accumulate several previously uncharacterized [3H]inositol-labeled lipids whose properties are consistent with their being GPI precursors. Together, these studies demonstrate that MCD4 encodes a new, conserved component of the GPI anchor synthesis pathway and highlight the intimate connections between GPI anchoring, bud emergence, cell wall function, and feedback mechanisms likely to be involved in regulating each of these essential processes. A putative role for Mcd4p as participating in the modification of GPI anchors with side chain phosphoethanolamine is also discussed. (+info)
Characterization of a novel rat brain glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (Kilon), a member of the IgLON cell adhesion molecule family.
In the central nervous system, many cell adhesion molecules are known to participate in the establishment and remodeling of the neural circuit. Some of the cell adhesion molecules are known to be anchored to the membrane by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) inserted to their C termini, and many GPI-anchored proteins are known to be localized in a Triton-insoluble membrane fraction of low density or so-called "raft." In this study, we surveyed the GPI-anchored proteins in the Triton-insoluble low density fraction from 2-week-old rat brain by solubilization with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. By Western blotting and partial peptide sequencing after the deglycosylation with peptide N-glycosidase F, the presence of Thy-1, F3/contactin, and T-cadherin was shown. In addition, one of the major proteins, having an apparent molecular mass of 36 kDa after the peptide N-glycosidase F digestion, was found to be a novel protein. The result of cDNA cloning showed that the protein is an immunoglobulin superfamily member with three C2 domains and has six putative glycosylation sites. Since this protein shows high sequence similarity to IgLON family members including LAMP, OBCAM, neurotrimin, CEPU-1, AvGP50, and GP55, we termed this protein Kilon (a kindred of IgLON). Kilon-specific monoclonal antibodies were produced, and Western blotting analysis showed that expression of Kilon is restricted to brain, and Kilon has an apparent molecular mass of 46 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in its expressed form. In brain, the expression of Kilon is already detected in E16 stage, and its level gradually increases during development. Kilon immunostaining was observed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, in which the strongly stained puncta were observed on dendrites and soma of pyramidal neurons. (+info)
Mammalian PIG-L and its yeast homologue Gpi12p are N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de-N-acetylases essential in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis.
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is used as a membrane anchor by many eukaryotic cell-surface proteins. The second step of GPI biosynthesis is de-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol (GlcNAc-PI). We have previously cloned the rat PIG-L gene by expression cloning that complemented a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line defective in this step. Here we show that recombinant rat PIG-L protein purified from Escherichia coli as a complex with GroEL has GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase activity in vitro. The activity was not enhanced by GTP, which is known to enhance the de-N-acetylase activity of mammalian cell microsomes. As with other de-N-acetylases that act on the GlcNAc moiety, metal ions, in particular Mn2+ and Ni2+, enhanced the enzyme activity of PIG-L. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae YMR281W open reading frame encodes a protein (termed Gpi12p) with 24% amino acid identity with rat PIG-L. On transfection into mammalian PIG-L-deficient cells, this gene, GPI12, restored the cell-surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins and GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase activity. The disruption of the gene caused lethality in S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase is conserved between mammals and yeasts and that the de-N-acetylation step is also indispensable in yeasts. (+info)
Differences between the trypanosomal and human GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylases of glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor biosynthesis.
De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylino-sitol (GlcNAc-PI) is the second step of glycosylphosphatidylino-sitol (GPI) membrane anchor biosynthesis in eukaryotes. This step is a prerequisite for the subsequent processing of glucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol (GlcN-PI) that leads to mature GPI membrane anchor precursors, which are transferred to certain proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. In this article, we used a direct de-N-acetylase assay, based on the release of [14C]acetate from synthetic GlcN[14C]Ac-PI and analogues thereof, and an indirect assay, based on the mannosylation of GlcNAc-PI analogues, to study the substrate specificities of the GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase activities of African trypanosomes and human (HeLa) cells. The HeLa enzyme was found to be more fastidious than the trypanosomal enzyme such that, unlike the trypanosomal enzyme, it was unable to act on a GlcNAc-PI analogue containing 2-O-octyl-d- myo -inositol or on the GlcNAc-PI diastereoisomer containing l- myo -inositol (GlcNAc-P(l)I). These results suggest thatselective inhibition of the trypanosomal de-N-acetylase may be possible and that this enzyme should be considered as a possible therapeutic target. The lack of strict stereospecificity of the trypanosomal de-N-acetylase for the d- myo -inositol component was also seen for the trypanosomal GPI alpha-manno-syltransferases when GlcNAc-P(l)I was added to the trypanosome cell-free system, but not when GlcN-P(l)I was used. In an attempt to rationalize these data, we modeled the structure and dynamics of d-GlcNAcalpha1-6d- myo -inositol-1-HPO4-( sn )-3-glycerol and its diastereoisomer d-GlcNAcalpha1-6l- myo -inositol-1-HPO4-( sn )-3-glycerol. These studies indicate that the latter compound visits two energy minima, one of which resembles the low-energy conformer of former compound. Thus, it is conceivable that the trypanosomal de-N-acetylase acts on GlcNAc-P(l)I when it occupies a GlcNAc-PI-likeconformation and that GlcN-P(l)I emerging from the de-N-acetylase may be channeled to the alpha-mannosyltransferases in this conformation. (+info)
Lipopolysaccharide stimulates HepG2 human hepatoma cells in the presence of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein via CD14.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), an opsonin for activation of macrophages by bacterial LPS, is synthesized in hepatocytes and is known to be an acute phase protein. Recently, cytokine-induced production of LBP was reported to increase 10-fold in hepatocytes isolated from LPS-treated rats, compared with those from normal rats. However, the mechanism by which the LPS treatment enhances the effect of cytokines remains to be clarified. In the present study, we examined whether LPS alone or an LPS/LBP complex directly stimulates the hepatocytes, leading to acceleration of the cytokine-induced LBP production. HepG2 cells (a human hepatoma cell line) were shown to express CD14, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored LPS receptor, by both RT/PCR and flow cytometric analyses. An LPS/LBP complex was an effective stimulator for LBP and CD14 production in HepG2 cells, but stimulation of the cells with either LPS or LBP alone did not significantly accelerate the production of these proteins. The findings were confirmed by semiquantitative RT/PCR analysis of mRNA levels of LBP and CD14 in HepG2 cells after stimulation with LPS alone and an LPS/LBP complex. In addition, two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to CD14 (3C10 and MEM-18) inhibited LPS/LBP-induced cellular responses of HepG2 cells. Furthermore, prestimulation of HepG2 cells with LPS/LBP augmented cytokine-induced production and gene expression of LBP and CD14. All these findings suggest that an LPS/LBP complex, but not free LPS, stimulates HepG2 cells via CD14 leading to increased basal and cytokine-induced LBP and CD14 production. (+info)