(1/1324) Effect of diabetes and aminoguanidine therapy on renal advanced glycation end-product binding.
BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, and aminoguanidine (AG) has been shown to decrease the accumulation of AGEs in the diabetic kidney. METHODS: This study investigates changes in AGE binding associated with diabetes in the rat kidney using in vitro and in vivo autoradiographic techniques. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into control and diabetic groups with and without AG treatment and were sacrificed after three weeks. Frozen kidney sections (20 microm) were incubated with [125I]-AGE-RNase or [125I]-AGE-BSA. To localize the AGE binding site, in vivo autoradiography was performed by injection of 15 microCi of [125I]-AGE-BSA into the abdominal aorta of the rat. RESULTS: Low-affinity binding sites specific for AGEs in the renal cortex (IC50 = 0.28 microm) were detected by in vitro autoradiography. There was a significant increase in [125I]-AGE binding in the diabetic kidney, which was prevented by AG treatment. Emulsion autoradiography revealed that binding was localized primarily to proximal tubules in the renal cortex. Renal AGE levels, as assessed by fluorescence or by radioimmunoassay, were increased after three weeks of diabetes. This increase was attenuated by AG therapy. CONCLUSIONS: AGE binding sites are present within the proximal tubules of the kidney and appear to be modulated by endogenous AGE levels. It remains to be determined if these binding sites represent receptors involved in clearance of AGEs or are linked to pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of diabetic nephropathy. (+info)
(2/1324) Implication of carbonyl stress in long-term uraemic complications.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed during non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation (glycoxidation) reactions. AGEs, such as pentosidine and carboxymethyllysine are increased in plasma proteins and skin collagen of uraemic patients several times more than in normal subjects and non-uraemic diabetic patients. However, AGEs do not differ between diabetics and non-diabetics in uraemic patients. The AGE accumulation in uraemia, therefore, cannot be attributed to hyperglycaemia, nor simply to a decreased removal by glomerular filtration of AGE-modified proteins. Recent evidence has suggested that, in uraemia, the increased carbonyl compounds, derived from both carbohydrates and lipids, modify proteins not only by glycoxidation but also by lipoxidation reactions, leading to the increased production of AGEs and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs). Thus, uraemia might be a state of increased carbonyl compounds with potentially damaging proteins ('carbonyl stress'). Carbonyl stress in uraemia appears relevant to long-term complications, such as dialysis-related amyloidosis. The increased AGEs and ALEs in uraemic plasma and tissue proteins may indicate alterations in the non-enzymatic chemistry involving both carbohydrates and lipids in uraemia. (+info)
(3/1324) Inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct formation by acetaldehyde: role in the cardioprotective effect of ethanol.
Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a beneficial effect of moderate ethanol consumption on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a two-carbon carbonyl compound that can react with nucleophiles to form covalent addition products. We have identified a biochemical modification produced by the reaction of acetaldehyde with protein-bound Amadori products. Amadori products typically arise from the nonenzymatic addition of reducing sugars (such as glucose) to protein amino groups and are the precursors to irreversibly bound, crosslinking moieties called advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs. AGEs accumulate over time on plasma lipoproteins and vascular wall components and play an important role in the development of diabetes- and age-related cardiovascular disease. The attachment of acetaldehyde to a model Amadori product produces a chemically stabilized complex that cannot rearrange and progress to AGE formation. We tested the role of this reaction in preventing AGE formation in vivo by administering ethanol to diabetic rats, which normally exhibit increased AGE formation and high circulating levels of the hemoglobin Amadori product, HbA1c, and the hemoglobin AGE product, Hb-AGE. In this model study, diabetic rats fed an ethanol diet for 4 weeks showed a 52% decrease in Hb-AGE when compared with diabetic controls (P < 0.001). Circulating levels of HbA1c were unaffected by ethanol, pointing to the specificity of the acetaldehyde reaction for the post-Amadori, advanced glycation process. These data suggest a possible mechanism for the so-called "French paradox," (the cardioprotection conferred by moderate ethanol ingestion) and may offer new strategies for inhibiting advanced glycation. (+info)
(4/1324) Increase in the advanced glycation end product pentosidine in Bruch's membrane with age.
PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an age-related increase of pentosidine in human Bruch's membranes and to localize pentosidine and carboxymethyllysine (CML), two well-characterized, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in aged human Bruch's membranes and choroid in vivo. METHODS: Human Bruch's membrane samples were isolated from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid and subjected to reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to determine pentosidine content. A polyclonal anti-pentosidine antibody and a monoclonal antibody specific for carboxymethyllysine were used to localize AGEs in 20-month-old nondiabetic, 82-year-old nondiabetic, and 82-year-old diabetic globes. RESULTS: Human Bruch's membranes (n = 20) showed a linear age-dependent increase in pentosidine that reached approximately 0.17 millimoles pentosidine per mole hydroxyproline in late life (r = 0.896; P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical evaluation showed evidence of pentosidine in Bruch's membrane, choroidal extracellular matrix, and vessel walls in the 82-year-old nondiabetic and diabetic globes. A similar staining pattern was found with the anti-CML antibody. Basal laminar deposits and drusen stained with both antibodies in the elderly nondiabetic eye. In contrast, neither antibody stained the 20-month-old tissue. CONCLUSIONS: We provide biochemical and immunohistochemical evidence for the formation of pentosidine and CML structures in human Bruch's membrane and choroid with age. These changes could promote aging of the RPE-Bruch's membrane-choroid complex. (+info)
(5/1324) Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products: a mechanism for chronic vascular dysfunction in diabetic vasculopathy and atherosclerosis.
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules and engages diverse ligands relevant to distinct pathological processes. One class of RAGE ligands includes glycoxidation products, termed advanced glycation end products, which occur in diabetes, at sites of oxidant stress in tissues, and in renal failure and amyloidoses. RAGE also functions as a signal transduction receptor for amyloid beta peptide, known to accumulate in Alzheimer disease in both affected brain parenchyma and cerebral vasculature. Interaction of RAGE with these ligands enhances receptor expression and initiates a positive feedback loop whereby receptor occupancy triggers increased RAGE expression, thereby perpetuating another wave of cellular activation. Sustained expression of RAGE by critical target cells, including endothelium, smooth muscle cells, mononuclear phagocytes, and neurons, in proximity to these ligands, sets the stage for chronic cellular activation and tissue damage. In a model of accelerated atherosclerosis associated with diabetes in genetically manipulated mice, blockade of cell surface RAGE by infusion of a soluble, truncated form of the receptor completely suppressed enhanced formation of vascular lesions. Amelioration of atherosclerosis in these diabetic/atherosclerotic animals by soluble RAGE occurred in the absence of changes in plasma lipids or glycemia, emphasizing the contribution of a lipid- and glycemia-independent mechanism(s) to atherogenesis, which we postulate to be interaction of RAGE with its ligands. Future studies using mice in which RAGE expression has been genetically manipulated and with selective low molecular weight RAGE inhibitors will be required to definitively assign a critical role for RAGE activation in diabetic vasculopathy. However, sustained receptor expression in a microenvironment with a plethora of ligand makes possible prolonged receptor stimulation, suggesting that interaction of cellular RAGE with its ligands could be a factor contributing to a range of important chronic disorders. (+info)
(6/1324) A sensitive and specific ELISA for plasma pentosidine.
BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products are formed by non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation reaction. Pentosidine is a well-known and characterized structure among them, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of complications associated with chronic renal failure and long-term dialysis, such as dialysis-related amyloidosis and atherosclerosis. METHODS: We established a highly sensitive and specific competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for plasma pentosidine and applied it to large numbers of plasma samples including haemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. We compared their plasma pentosidine levels determined by the competitive ELISA with those determined by high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay currently used. RESULTS: The plasma pentosidine levels determined by the ELISA were correlated well with those determined by sophisticated instrumental HPLC assay, both in non-diabetic and diabetic dialysis patients. Both analyses yielded comparable results, with over 8-fold higher plasma pentosidine levels in HD and CAPD patients, irrespective of the presence or absence of diabetes, as compared to normal subjects and non-uraemic diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS: The competitive ELISA will provide a rapid and convenient determination of plasma pentosidine content and thus be useful to assess the carbonyl stress in uraemic patients. (+info)
(7/1324) Immunohistochemical evidence for an increased oxidative stress and carbonyl modification of proteins in diabetic glomerular lesions.
Advanced glycation end products (AGE) include a variety of protein adducts whose accumulation has been implicated in tissue damage associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN). It was recently demonstrated that among AGE, glycoxidation products, whose formation is closely linked to oxidation, such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pentosidine, accumulate in expanded mesangial matrix and nodular lesions in DN, in colocalization with malondialdehyde-lysine (MDA-lysine), a lipoxidation product, whereas pyrraline, another AGE structure whose deposition is rather independent from oxidative stress, was not found within diabetic glomeruli. Because CML, pentosidine, and MDA-lysine are all formed under oxidative stress by carbonyl amine chemistry between protein amino group and carbonyl compounds, their colocalization suggests a local oxidative stress and increased protein carbonyl modification in diabetic glomerular lesions. To address this hypothesis, human renal tissues from patients with DN or IgA nephropathy were examined with specific antibodies to characterize most, if not all, carbonyl modifications of proteins by autoxidation products of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids: CML (derived from carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acid), pentosidine (derived from carbohydrates), MDA-lysine (derived from lipids), 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adduct (derived from lipids), and acrolein-protein adduct (derived from lipids and amino acid). All of the protein adducts were identified in expanded mesangial matrix and nodular lesions in DN. In IgA nephropathy, another primary glomerular disease leading to end-stage renal failure, despite positive staining for MDA-lysine and 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adduct in the expanded mesangial area, CML, pentosidine, and acrolein-protein adduct immunoreactivities were only faint in glomeruli. These data suggest a broad derangement in nonenzymatic biochemistry in diabetic glomerular lesions, and implicate an increased local oxidative stress and carbonyl modification of proteins in diabetic glomerular tissue damage ("carbonyl stress"). (+info)
(8/1324) Increased erythrocyte 3-DG and AGEs in diabetic hemodialysis patients: role of the polyol pathway.
BACKGROUND: 3-Deoxyglucosone (3-DG) accumulating in uremic serum plays an important role in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). To determine if 3-DG is involved in the formation of intracellular AGEs, we measured the erythrocyte levels of 3-DG and AGEs such as imidazolone and N epsilon-carboxymethyllysine (CML) in hemodialysis (HD) patients with diabetes. Further, to determine if the polyol pathway is involved in the formation of erythrocyte 3-DG and AGEs, an aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) was administered to these patients. METHODS: The erythrocyte levels of sorbitol, 3-DG, imidazolone, and CML were measured in ten diabetic HD patients before and after treatment with ARI (epalrestat) for eight weeks, and were compared with those in eleven healthy subjects. 3-DG was incubated in vitro with hemoglobin for two weeks to determine if imidazolone and CML are formed by reacting 3-DG with hemoglobin. RESULTS: The erythrocyte levels of sorbitol, 3-DG, imidazolone, and CML were significantly elevated in diabetic HD patients as compared with healthy subjects. The erythrocyte levels of 3-DG significantly decreased after HD, but sorbitol, imidazolone or CML did not. The administration of ARI significantly decreased the erythrocyte levels of sorbitol, 3-DG and imidazolone, and tended to decrease the CML level. Imidazolone was rapidly produced in vitro by incubating 3-DG with hemoglobin, and CML was also produced, but less markedly as compared with imidazolone. CONCLUSION: The erythrocyte levels of 3-DG and AGEs are elevated in diabetic HD patients. The administration of ARI reduces the erythrocyte levels of 3-DG and AGEs, especially imidazolone, as well as sorbitol. Thus, 3-DG and AGEs, especially imidazolone, in the erythrocytes are produced mainly via the polyol pathway. ARI may prevent diabetic and uremic complications associated with AGEs. (+info)