Glycopeptides from the surgace of human neuroblastoma cells.
Glycopeptides suggesting a complex oligosaccharide composition are present on the surface of cells from human neuroblastoma tumors and several cell lines derived from the tumors. The glycopeptides, labeled with radioactive L-fucose, were removed from the cell surface with trypsin, digested with Pronase, and examined by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Human skin fibroblasts, brain cells, and a fibroblast line derived from neuroblastoma tumor tissue show less complex glycopeptides. Although some differences exist between the cell lines and the primary tumor cells, the similarities between these human tumors and animal tumors examined previously are striking. (+info)
Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL.
T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response. (+info)
Crystal structures of two H-2Db/glycopeptide complexes suggest a molecular basis for CTL cross-reactivity.
Two synthetic O-GlcNAc-bearing peptides that elicit H-2Db-restricted glycopeptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) have been shown to display nonreciprocal patterns of cross-reactivity. Here, we present the crystal structures of the H-2Db glycopeptide complexes to 2.85 A resolution or better. In both cases, the glycan is solvent exposed and available for direct recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR). We have modeled the complex formed between the MHC-glycopeptide complexes and their respective TCRs, showing that a single saccharide residue can be accommodated in the standard TCR-MHC geometry. The models also reveal a possible molecular basis for the observed cross-reactivity patterns of the CTL clones, which appear to be influenced by the length of the CDR3 loop and the nature of the immunizing ligand. (+info)
The structure of a glycopeptide (GP-II) isolated from Rhizopus saccharogenic amylase.
Mild alkaline treatment of glycopeptide (GP-II) resulted in the loss of 1 mole of serine and 5 moles of threonine per mole of GP-II, suggesting the presence of O-glycosyl bonds between 1 serine and 5 threonine residues and carbohydrate chains. Treatment of GP-II with alkaline borohydride released only disaccharide. Methylation studies of the carbohydrate moiety gave 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl and 2,4,6-tri-O-methyl derivatives of mannose in a ratio of approximately 1:1. In addition, one step of Smith degradation resulted in the loss of about 6 residues of mannose per mole of GP-II. Moreover, alpha-mannosidase [EC 188.8.131.52] liberated about 6 residles of mannose per mole of GP-II. On the basis of these data, the structure of the carbohydrate moiety of GP-II was confirmed to be 3-O-alpha-mannosylmannose. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal amino acids of GP-II were determined to be threonine and serine, respectively. On reductive cleavage of N-proline bonds with metallic sodium in liquid ammonia, 2 moles of alanine per mole of GP-II were lost. From the compositions of three fragments isolated from the reductive cleavage products, the amino acid sequence of the peptide portion of GP-II was determined. Based on these data, a probable structure was proposed for GP-II. (+info)
Participation of a trisaccharide-lipid in glycosylation of oviduct membrane glycoproteins.
Preincubation of a hen oviduct membrane preparation with UDP-Nactyl[14C]glucosamine and bacitracin, followed by incubation with GDP-mannose, leads to formation of a chloroform/methanol (2/1)-extractable glycolipid. Treatment of the lipid with mild acid results in the release of a trisaccharide shown to have the structure beta-mannosyl-N-acetylglucosamineyl-N-acetylglucosamine. Incubation of purified trisaccharide-lipid with oviduct membranes in the presence of sodium deoxycholate, Mn2+, and GDP-mannose leads to formation of a labeled glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 25,000... (+info)
Synergy of an investigational glycopeptide, LY333328, with once-daily gentamicin against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a multiple-dose, in vitro pharmacodynamic model.
The pharmacodynamics of an investigational glycopeptide, LY333328 (LY), alone and in combination with gentamicin, against one vancomycin-susceptible and two vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains were studied with a multiple-dose, in vitro pharmacodynamic model (PDM). Dose-range data for the PDM studies were obtained from static time-kill curve studies. In PDM experiments conducted over 48 h, peak LY concentrations of 0.1x and 1x the MIC every 24 h and peak gentamicin concentrations of 18 micrograms/ml every 24 h (Gq24 h) and 6 micrograms/ml every 8 h (Gq8 h) were studied alone and in the four possible LY-gentamicin combinations. Compared to either antibiotic alone, LY-gentamicin combination regimens produced significantly higher apparent killing rates (KRs) calculated during the initial 2 h postdosing. The mean KRs for LY or gentamicin alone versus those for the LY-gentamicin combination regimens were 0.35 +/- 0.55 log10 CFU/ml/h (95% confidence interval [CI95%], 0 to 0.70) and 1.46 +/- 0.71 log10 CFU/ml/h (CI95%, 1.01 to 1.91), respectively (P < 0.0001). Bacterial killing at 48 h (BK48), which was calculated by subtracting the bacterial counts at 48 h from the initial inoculum, with a negative value indicating net growth, was also significantly greater. The mean BK48S were -0.69 +/- 0.44 log10 CFU/ml (CI95%, -0.41 to -0.97) and 3.72 +/- 2.28 log10 CFU/ml (CI95%, 2.28 to 5.17) for LY or gentamicin alone versus LY-gentamicin combination regimens, respectively (P < 0.0001). None of the 12 regimens with LY or gentamicin alone but 75% (9 of 12) of the LY-gentamicin combination regimens were bactericidal. Eighty-three percent (10 of 12) of the LY-gentamicin combination regimens also demonstrated synergy. No significant differences between the pharmacodynamics of LY-gentamicin combination regimens containing Gq24 h versus those containing Gq8h were detected. (+info)
Evaluation of bactericidal activities of LY333328, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin-sulbactam, trovafloxacin, and RP59500 alone or in combination with rifampin or gentamicin against different strains of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus by time-kill curve methods.
This in vitro study evaluated the activities of vancomycin, LY333328, and teicoplanin alone and in combination with gentamicin, rifampin, and RP59500 against Staphylococcus aureus isolates with intermediate susceptibilities to vancomycin. Ampicillin-sulbactam and trovafloxacin were also evaluated. LY333328 and ampicillin-sulbactam resulted in bactericidal activity against all isolates. The combination of gentamicin with glycopeptides showed synergistic activity, while rifampin had no added benefit. (+info)
Evidence for an adenovirus type 2-coded early glycoprotein.
We have identified an adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-induced early glycopolypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 20,000 to 21,000 (20/21K), as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The 20/21K polypeptide could be labeled in vivo with [(3)H]glucosamine. [(35)S]methionine- and [(3)H]-glucosamine-labeled 20/21K polypeptides bound to concanavalin A-Sepharose columns and were eluted with 0.2 M methyl-alpha-d-mannoside. The pulse-labeled polypeptide appeared as a sharp band with an apparent molecular weight of 21K, but after a chase it converted to multiple bands with an average molecular weight of 20K. This variability in electrophoretic mobility is consistent with glycosylation or deglycosylation of the 20/21K polypeptide. Analysis of the pulse and pulse-chase-labeled forms by using partial proteolysis indicated that the polypeptides were highly related chemically, but not identical. Most of the 20/21K polypeptide is localized in the cytoplasm fraction of infected cells lysed by Nonidet P-40. The 20/21K polypeptide and a 44K polypeptide, labeled with [(35)S]methionine or [(3)H]glucosamine in Ad2-infected human cells, were precipitated by a rat antiserum against an Ad2-transformed rat cell line (T2C4), but not by antisera against three other Ad2-transformed rat cell lines, or by serum from nonimmune rats. The partial proteolysis patterns of the 20/21K and the 44K polypeptides were indistinguishable, indicating that the two polypeptides are highly related, and suggesting that the 44K polypeptide might be a dimer of the 20/21K polypeptide. The 20/21K polypeptide was also induced in Ad2-early infected monkey and hamster cells. These results imply that the 20/21K polypeptide is synthesized in Ad2-infected human, monkey, and hamster cells, and in one but not all Ad2-transformed rat cells. Thus, the 20/21K polypeptide is probably viral coded rather than cell coded and viral induced. (+info)