Spinal reflexes and the concentrations of 5-HIAA, MHPG, and HVA in lumbar cereborspinal fluid after spinal lesions in man.
Descending bulbospinal pathways that employ specific neurotransmitter substances are known to be capable of modulating segmental reflex activity in the experimental animal. To determine whether this might also occur in man correlations have been sought between the activity in spinal reflex pathways and the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3 methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in 12 patients with complete or virtually complete spinal lesions. The concentrations of 5-HIAA and MHPG in lumbar CSF ARE REDUCED AFTER COMPLETE OR VIRTUALLY COMPLETE SPINAL LESIONS IN MAN. This may occur within 18 days of the lesion. MHPG concentrations appear to be inversely related to the level of the lesion. The HVA concentration in lumbar CSF is reduced when there is obstruction of the CSF pathways. No relationship could be demonstrated between the concentrations of 5-HIAA or MHPG in lumbar CSF and the activity in the spinal monosynaptic pathway (estimated from the proportion of the motoneurone pool activated by the Achilles tendon reflex or H reflex) or the activity of a spinal inhibitory mechanism (estimated by the degree of vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex). Patients with a tonic vibration reflex (TVR) tended to have higher MHPG levels. There appeared to be an association between low CSF HVA and enhanced vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex in the nine patients whose spinal lesions were complete. (+info)
Effects of commonly used cryoprotectants on glycogen phosphorylase activity and structure.
The effects of a number of cryoprotectants on the kinetic and structural properties of glycogen phosphorylase b have been investigated. Kinetic studies showed that glycerol, one of the most commonly used cryoprotectants in X-ray crystallographic studies, is a competitive inhibitor with respect to substrate glucose-1-P with an apparent Ki value of 3.8% (v/v). Cryogenic experiments, with the enzyme, have shown that glycerol binds at the catalytic site and competes with glucose analogues that bind at the catalytic site, thus preventing the formation of complexes. This necessitated a change in the conditions for cryoprotection in crystallographic binding experiments with glycogen phosphorylase. It was found that 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD), polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of various molecular weights, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) activated glycogen phosphorylase b to different extents, by stabilizing its most active conformation, while sucrose acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor and ethylene glycol as an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to glucose-1-P. A parallel experimental investigation by X-ray crystallography showed that, at 100 K, both MPD and DMSO do not bind at the catalytic site, do not induce any significant conformational change on the enzyme molecule, and hence, are more suitable cryoprotectants than glycerol for binding studies with glycogen phosphorylase. (+info)
Rapid conditions for the cleavage of oligodeoxyribonucleotides from cis-diol-bearing universal polymer supports and their deprotection.
Two sets of deprotection conditions have been evolved for the deprotection of oligodeoxyribonucleotides and their cleavage from commercially available cis -diol group-bearing universal polymer supports. In the first case, oligodeoxyribonucleotides anchored on the universal support were subjected to one of the standard deprotection conditions followed by treatment with aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride + 0.2 M sodium hydroxide solution for 30 min at room temperature. In the second case, oligonucleotides bound to the universal support were treated with methanolic sodium hydroxide solution under microwave radiation to obtain fully deprotected oligomers within 4 min. Under both conditions, the cleavage of oligonucleotides from the support and their deprotection occurred quantitatively without any side product formation. The cleaved oligonucleotides were found to be identical in all respects (retention time on HPLC and biological activity in PCR) to the corresponding standard oligo-nucleotides. (+info)
Identification of four trans-3,4-dihydrodiol metabolites of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and their in vitro DNA-binding activities upon further metabolism.
Trans-3,4-dihydrodiols of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (7,12-Me2BA), 7-methyl-12-hydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene (7-Me-12-OHMeBA), 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-OHMe-12-MeBA), and 7,12-di(hydroxymethyl)benz[a]anthracene [7,12-(OHMe)2BA] have been identified as metabolites of the potent carcinogenic and adrenocorticolytic agent 7,12-MeBA. The four trans-3,4-dihydrodiols were identified by their (i) ultraviolet-visible absorption and fluorescence properties, (ii) different retention times on both reversed-phase and normal-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, (iii) mass spectral analysis, and (iv) inability to form vicinal cis-acetonides. Upon further metabolism by liver microsomes, the trans-3,4-dihydrodiols of 7,12-Me2BA, 7-Me-12OHMeBA, and 7-OHMe-12-MeBA were found to give rise to products that bind more strongly to DNA in vitro than do the products of 7,12-Me2BA. The evidence suggests that one or more of the four trans-3,4-dihydrodiols may be the proximate carcinogenic and adrenocorticolytic metabolites. (+info)
Crystallographic studies on a family B DNA polymerase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus kodakaraensis strain KOD1.
A hyperthermostable family B DNA polymerase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus kodakaraensis strain KOD1, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method at 293 K with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as the precipitant. The diffraction pattern of a crystal extends to 3.0 A resolution, and two full sets of 3.0 A resolution diffraction data for native crystals were successfully collected at 290 K and 100 K upon exposure to synchrotron radiation at KEK-PF, Japan. The crystals belong to the space group, P212121, with unit-cell dimensions of a = 112.8, b = 115.4, and c = 75.4 A at 290 K, and a = 111.9, b = 112.4, and c = 73.9 at 100 K. Structural analysis by means of the multiple isomorphous replacement method is now in progress. (+info)
Butadiene diolepoxide- and diepoxybutane-derived DNA adducts at N7-guanine: a high occurrence of diolepoxide-derived adducts in mouse lung after 1,3-butadiene exposure.
Butadiene (BD) is a high production volume chemical and is known to be tumorigenic in rodents. BD is metabolized to butadiene monoepoxide (BMO), diepoxybutane (DEB) and butadiene diolepoxide (BDE). These epoxides are genotoxic and alkylate DNA both in vitro and in vivo, mainly at the N7 position of guanine. In this study, a 32P-post-labeling/thin-layer chromatography (TLC)/high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for BDE and DEB adducts at the N7 of guanine was developed and was used in determining the enantiomeric composition of the adducts and the organ dose of BD exposure in lung. Exposure of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo), 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-phosphate (5'-dGMP) and 2'-deoxyguanosine-3'-phosphate (3'-dGMP) to racemic BDE followed by neutral thermal hydrolysis gave two products (products 1 and 2) that were identified by MS and UV and NMR spectroscopy as a diastereomeric pair of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-guanines. Exposure of dGuo nucleotides to RR/SS DEB (also referred to as dl DEB) followed by thermal depurination resulted in a single product coeluting with the BDE product 1. If the reaction mixture of BDE and 5'-dGMP was analyzed by HPLC before hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, four major nucleotide alkylation products (A, B, C and D) with identical UV sepectra were detected. The products were isolated and hydrolyzed, after which A and C coeluted with product 1 and B and D coeluted with the product 2. The major adduct of DEB-exposed 5'-dGMP was N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP (product E). A 32P-post-labeling assay was used to detect BDE- and DEB-derived N7-dGMP adducts in DNA. Levels of adducts increased with a dose of BDE and DEB and exhibited a half life of 30 +/- 3 (r = 0.98) and 31 +/- 4 h (r = 0.95), respectively. Incubation of DEB-modified DNA at 37 degrees C at neutral pH for up to 142 h did not lead to an increase of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP in the DNA. These observations led to the conclusion that the N7-(2,3, 4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP adducts in DNA can be used as a marker of BDE exposure and that N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP adducts are related to DEB exposure. Dose-related levels of BDE- and DEB-derived adducts were detected in lungs of mice inhaling butadiene. Most of the N7-dGMP adducts (73%; product D) were derived from the 2R-diol-3S-epoxide of 1,3-butadiene. The data presented in this paper indicate that in vivo, 98% of N7-dGMP alkylation after BD exposure is derived from BDE, and approximately 2% of the adducts were derived from DEB and BMO. (+info)
2'-Deoxycytidine glycols, a missing link in the free radical-mediated oxidation of DNA.
2'-Deoxycytidine glycols (5,6-dihydroxy-5, 6-dihydro-2'-deoxycytidine) are major products of the hydroxyl radical-induced oxidation of 2'-deoxycytidine resulting from either a Fenton reaction or exposure to ionizing radiation. Because of their instability, however, the glycols have not previously been characterized. Instead, the impetus has been placed on the primary decomposition products of 2'-deoxycytidine glycols, which includes 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine, 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxyuridine, and 2'-deoxyuridine glycols. Here, we have identified one of the four possible diastereomers of 2'-deoxycytidine glycols by product analyses of decomposition products, (1)H NMR, and mass spectrometry. This glycol was observed to decompose with a half-life of 50 min at 37 degrees C in buffered neutral solutions and preferentially undergo dehydration to 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine. The rate of decomposition was strongly dependent on pH (2-10) and the concentration of phosphate ion (10-300 mM). Next, we report on the deamination of cytosine glycols to uracil glycols in oxidized DNA using acid hydrolysis and high performance liquid chromatography analysis with electrochemical detection to monitor 5-hydroxycytosine and 5-hydroxyuracil. The results showed that the lifetime of cytosine glycols is greatly enhanced in DNA (34-fold; half-life, 28 h), and that deamination accounts for at least one-third of the total decomposition. The relatively long lifetime of cytosine glycols in DNA suggests that this important class of DNA oxidation products will be significantly involved in repair and mutagenesis processes. (+info)
An in vivo approach showing the chemotactic activity of leukotriene B(4) in acute renal ischemic-reperfusion injury.
Neutrophil migration protects the body against foreign invasion. Sequestration and activation of neutrophils, however, require stringent regulation because they may also cause tissue damage by the release of lysosomal enzymes and reactive oxygen species. The activity of various chemoattractants [e.g., leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), interleukin-8, and complements] has been documented by in vitro assays, whereas in vivo data have been limited mostly to histology. To examine in an in vivo model the chemotactic activity and subsequent tissue infiltration and the role of a specific chemoattractant, LTB(4), we used a rat renal ischemia-reperfusion injury model. Fluorescence-labeled Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the LTB(4) receptor (CHO-BLT) were able to accumulate along with neutrophils in the postischemic kidney, in contrast to vector control CHO cells. Furthermore, LTB(4) antagonists that protect against the decrease in renal function and diminish the tissue myeloperoxidase activity also led to the marked decrease in the number of CHO-BLT cells and neutrophils. Thus, LTB(4) alone appears sufficient to cause cells to migrate into postischemic tissues, and its dominant role in reperfusion injury has been demonstrated. The utilization of transfectants to pinpoint the role of LTB(4) in these in vivo experiments suggests their potential use with other ligands and/or in other pathological conditions. (+info)