A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder.
Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations. (+info)
Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL.
T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response. (+info)
Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite pellicle antigen recognized by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody is a beta-mannosylated glycolipid.
The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is an important cause of diarrhea in humans, calves, and other mammals worldwide. No approved vaccines or parasite-specific drugs are currently available for the control of cryptosporidiosis. To effectively immunize against C. parvum, identification and characterization of protective antigens are required. We previously identified CPS-500, a conserved, neutralization-sensitive antigen of C. parvum sporozoites and merozoites defined by monoclonal antibody 18.44. In the present study, the biochemical characteristics and subcellular location of CPS-500 were determined. CPS-500 was chloroform extractable and eluted with acetone and methanol in silicic acid chromatography, consistent with being a polar glycolipid. Following chloroform extraction and silicic acid chromatography, CPS-500 was isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography for glycosyl analysis, which indicated the presence of mannose and inositol. To identify which component of CPS-500 comprised the neutralization-sensitive epitope recognized by 18.44, the ability of the monoclonal antibody to bind CPS-500 treated with proteases, or with alpha- or beta-glycosidases, was determined. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 did not bind antigen treated with beta-D-mannosidase but did bind antigen treated with alpha-D-mannosidase, other alpha- or beta-glycosidases, or a panel of proteases. These data indicated that the target epitope was dependent on terminal beta-D-mannopyranosyl residues. By immunoelectron microscopy, 18.44 binding was localized to the pellicle and an intracytoplasmic tubulovesicular network in sporozoites. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 also bound to antigen deposited and released onto substrate over the course travelled by gliding sporozoites and merozoites. Surface localization, adhesion and release during locomotion, and neutralization sensitivity suggest that CPS-500 may be involved in motility and invasion processes of the infective zoite stages. (+info)
Gas-liquid chromatography of the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of the O-methyl-glycosides on capillary columns: a method for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharide composition of glycoproteins and glycolipids.
We have developed a method involving the formation of hepta-fluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides liberated from glycoproteins and glycolipids following methanolysis. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides of these glycoconjugates (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Fuc, Gal, Man, Glc, GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac, KDN) can be separated and quantitatively and reproducibly determined with a high degree of sensitivity level (down to 25 pmol) in the presence of lysine as an internal standard. The GlcNAc residue bound to Asn in N-glycans is quantitatively recovered as two peaks. The latter were easily distinguished from the other GlcNAc residues of N-glycans, thus allowing a considerable improvement of the data on structure of N-glycans obtained from a single carbohydrate analysis. The most common contaminants present in buffers commonly used for the isolation of soluble or membrane-bound glycoproteins (SDS, Triton X-100, DOC, TRIS, glycine, and polyacrylamide or salts, as well as monosaccharide constituents of proteoglycans or degradation products of nucleic acids) do not interfere with these determinations. A carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins isolated from a SDS/PAGE gel or from PDVF membranes can be performed on microgram amounts without significant interferences. Since fatty acid methyl esters and sphingosine derivatives are separated from the monosaccharide peaks, the complete composition of gangliosides can be achieved in a single step starting from less than 1 microg of the initial compound purified by preparative Silicagel TLC. Using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, reporter ions for the different classes of O-methyl-glycosides (pentoses, deoxy-hexoses, hexoses, hexosamines, uronic acids, sialic acid, and KDN) allow the identification of these compounds in very complex mixtures. The mass of each compound can be determined in the chemical ionization mode and detection of positive or negative ions. This method presents a considerable improvement compared to those using TMS derivatives. Indeed the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives are stable, and acylation of amino groups is complete. Moreover, there is no interference with contaminants and the separation between fatty acid methyl-esters and O-methyl glycosides is achieved. (+info)
Formation of lipid-linked sugar compounds in Halobacterium salinarium. Presumed intermediates in glycoprotein synthesis.
The ability of bacitracin to inhibit the growth of Halobacterium salinarium suggested that glycosylation of the major envelope component, a high molecular weight glycoprotein, might occur via a pathway involving lipid intermediates. This report demonstrates that the cells have enzymatic activities for formation of lipid-linked sugar compounds having the expected properties of such intermediates. Whole cell homogenate catalyzed the transfer of sugar from UDP-glucose, GDP-mannose, and UDP-N-acetyglucosamine to endogenous lipid acceptors. Two lipid products were formed from UDP-glucose, two from GDP-mannose, and one from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Characterization of the partially purified lipids by ion exchange chromatography, thin layer chromatography, and mild acid and base hydrolysis showed the major product in each case to have the properties expected for polyisoprenyl phosphoglucose, polyisoprenyl phosphomannose, and polyisoprenyl pyrophospho-N-acetylglucosamine. Estimates of chain length by thin layer chromatography indicate that the lipid has 11 to 12 isoprene identity as a C55-60-polyisoprenyl pyrophospho-N-acetylglucosamine. The N-acetylglucosamine transferase, present in cell envelope preparations, was partially characterized. The enzyme was found to be extremely halophilic, specifically requiring a high concentration of KCl. Optimum activity was obtained at 4 m KCl and partial substitution of K+ by Na+ resulted in a decrease in activity. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of two mouse L cell lines resistant to the toxic lectin ricin.
Two variant mouse L cell lines (termed CL 3 and CL 6) have been selected for resistant to ricin, a galactose-binding lectin with potent cytotoxic activity. The resistant lines exhibit a 50 to 70% decrease in ricin binding and a 300- to 500-fold increase in resistance to the toxic effects of ricin. Crude membrane preparations of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid content (200% of control), while the galactose, mannose, and hexosamine content is within normal limits. Both the glycoproteins and glycolipids of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid, with the GM3:lactosylceramide ratios for parent L and CL 3 cells being 0.29 and 1.5, respectively. In contrast, the membranes of CL 6 cells have a decrease in sialic acid, galactose, and hexosamine content with mannose being normal. Both cell lines have specific alterations in glycosyltransferase activities which can account for the observed membrane sugar changes. CL 3 cells have increased CMP-sialic acid:glycoprotein sialyltransferase and GM3 synthetase activities, while CL 6 cells have decrease UDP-GlcNAc:glycoproteinN-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and DPU-galactose:glycoprotein galactosyltransferase activities. The increased sialic acid content of CL 3 cells serves to mask ricin binding sites, since neuraminidase treatment of this cell line restores ricin binding to essentially normal levels. However, the fact that neuraminidase-treated CL 3 cells are still 45-fold resistant to ricin indicates that either a special class of productive ricin binding sites is not being exposed or that the cell line has a second mechanism for ricin resistance. (+info)
Participation of a trisaccharide-lipid in glycosylation of oviduct membrane glycoproteins.
Preincubation of a hen oviduct membrane preparation with UDP-Nactyl[14C]glucosamine and bacitracin, followed by incubation with GDP-mannose, leads to formation of a chloroform/methanol (2/1)-extractable glycolipid. Treatment of the lipid with mild acid results in the release of a trisaccharide shown to have the structure beta-mannosyl-N-acetylglucosamineyl-N-acetylglucosamine. Incubation of purified trisaccharide-lipid with oviduct membranes in the presence of sodium deoxycholate, Mn2+, and GDP-mannose leads to formation of a labeled glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 25,000... (+info)
A fluorescence resonance energy transfer approach for monitoring protein-mediated glycolipid transfer between vesicle membranes.
A lipid transfer protein, purified from bovine brain (23.7 kDa, 208 amino acids) and specific for glycolipids, has been used to develop a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay (anthrylvinyl-labeled lipids; energy donors and perylenoyl-labeled lipids; energy acceptors) for monitoring the transfer of lipids between membranes. Small unilamellar vesicles composed of 1 mol% anthrylvinyl-galactosylceramide, 1.5 mol% perylenoyl-triglyceride, and 97.5% 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) served as donor membranes. Acceptor membranes were 100% POPC vesicles. Addition of glycolipid transfer protein to mixtures of donor and acceptor vesicles resulted in increasing emission intensity of anthrylvinyl-galactosylceramide and decreasing emission intensity of the nontransferable perylenoyl-triglyceride as a function of time. The behavior was consistent with anthrylvinyl-galactosylceramide being transferred from donor to acceptor vesicles. The anthrylvinyl and perylenoyl energy transfer pair offers advantages over frequently used energy transfer pairs such as NBD and rhodamine. The anthrylvinyl emission overlaps effectively the perylenoyl excitation spectrum and the fluorescence parameters of the anthrylvinyl fluorophore are nearly independent of the medium polarity. The nonpolar fluorophores are localized in the hydrophobic region of the bilayer thus producing minimal disturbance of the bilayer polar region. Our results indicate that this method is suitable for assay of lipid transfer proteins including mechanistic studies of transfer protein function. (+info)