Inactivation of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter causes glycogen storage disease type 1b.
Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD-1b) is proposed to be caused by a deficiency in microsomal glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) transport, causing a loss of glucose-6-phosphatase activity and glucose homeostasis. However, for decades, this disorder has defied molecular characterization. In this study, we characterize the structural organization of the G6P transporter gene and identify mutations in the gene that segregate with the GSD-1b disorder. We report the functional characterization of the recombinant G6P transporter and demonstrate that mutations uncovered in GSD-1b patients disrupt G6P transport. Our results, for the first time, define a molecular basis for functional deficiency in GSD-1b and raise the possibility that the defective G6P transporter contributes to neutropenia and neutrophil/monocyte dysfunctions characteristic of GSD-1b patients. (+info)
Identification of protein components of the microsomal glucose 6-phosphate transporter by photoaffinity labelling.
The glucose-6-phosphatase system catalyses the terminal step of hepatic glucose production from both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis and is thus a key regulatory factor of blood glucose homoeostasis. To identify the glucose 6-phosphate transporter T1, we have performed photoaffinity labelling of human and rat liver microsomes by using the specific photoreactive glucose-6-phosphate translocase inhibitors S 0957 and S 1743. Membrane proteins of molecular mass 70, 55, 33 and 31 kDa were labelled in human microsomes by [3H]S 0957, whereas in rat liver microsomes bands at 95, 70, 57, 54, 50, 41, 33 and 31 kDa were detectable. The photoprobe [3H]S 1743 led to the predominant labelling of a 57 kDa and a 50 kDa protein in the rat. Stripping of microsomes with 0.3% CHAPS retains the specific binding of T1 inhibitors; photoaffinity labelling of such CHAPS-treated microsomes resulted in the labelling of membrane proteins of molecular mass 55, 33 and 31 kDa in human liver and 50, 33 and 31 kDa in rat liver. Photoaffinity labelling of human liver tissue samples from a healthy individual and from liver samples of patients with a diagnosed glycogen-storage disease type 1b (GSD type 1b; von Gierke's disease) revealed the absence of the 55 kDa protein from one of the patients with GSD type 1. These findings support the identity of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter T1, with endoplasmic reticulum protein of molecular mass 50 kDa in rat liver and 55 kDa in human liver. (+info)
Complete genomic structure and mutational spectrum of PHKA2 in patients with x-linked liver glycogenosis type I and II.
X-linked liver glycogenosis (XLG) is probably the most frequent glycogen-storage disease. XLG can be divided into two subtypes: XLG I, with a deficiency in phosphorylase kinase (PHK) activity in peripheral blood cells and liver; and XLG II, with normal in vitro PHK activity in peripheral blood cells and with variable activity in liver. Both types of XLG are caused by mutations in the same gene, PHKA2, that encodes the regulatory alpha subunit of PHK. To facilitate mutation analysis in PHKA2, we determined its genomic structure. The gene consists of 33 exons, spanning >/=65 kb. By SSCP analysis of the different PHKA2 exons, we identified five new XLG I mutations, one new XLG II mutation, and one mutation present in both a patient with XLG I and a patient with XLG II, bringing the total to 19 XLG I and 12 XLG II mutations. Most XLG I mutations probably lead to truncation or disruption of the PHKA2 protein. In contrast, all XLG II mutations are missense mutations or small in-frame deletions and insertions. These results suggest that the biochemical differences between XLG I and XLG II might be due to the different nature of the disease-causing mutations in PHKA2. XLG I mutations may lead to absence of the alpha subunit, which causes an unstable PHK holoenzyme and deficient enzyme activity, whereas XLG II mutations may lead to in vivo deregulation of PHK, which might be difficult to demonstrate in vitro. (+info)
The putative glucose 6-phosphate translocase gene is mutated in essentially all cases of glycogen storage disease type I non-a.
The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis that mutations in the putative glucose 6-phosphate translocase gene would account for most of the cases of GSD I that are not explained by mutations in the phosphohydrolase gene, ie that are not type Ia. Twenty-three additional families diagnosed as having GSD I non-a (GSDIb, Ic or Id) have now been analysed. The 9exons of the gene were amplified by PCR and mutations searched both by SSCP and heteroduplex analysis. Except for one family in which only one mutation was found, all patients had two allelic mutations in the gene encoding the putative glucose 6-phosphate translocase. Sixteen of the mutations are new and they are all predicted to lead to non-functional proteins. All investigated patients had some degree of neutropenia or neutrophil dysfunction and the clinical phenotype of the four new patients who had been diagnosed as GSD Ic and the one diagnosed as GSD Id was no different from the GSD Ib patients. Since these patients, and the four type Ic patients from two families previously studied, shared several mutations with GSD Ib patients, we conclude that their basic defect is in the putative glucose 6-phosphate translocase and that they should be reclassified as GSD Ib. Isolated defects in microsomal Pi transporter or in microsomal glucose transporter must be very rare or have phenotypes that are not recognised as GSD I, so that in practice there are only two subtypes of GSD I (GSD Ia and GSD Ib). (+info)
Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) gene in patients with glycogen storage diseases type 1b and 1c.
Glycogen storage diseases type 1 (GSD 1) are a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by impairment of terminal steps of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Mutations of the glucose-6-phosphatase gene are responsible for the most frequent form of GSD 1, the subtype 1a, while mutations of the glucose-6-phosphate transporter gene (G6PT) have recently been shown to cause the non 1a forms of GSD, namely the 1b and 1c subtypes. Here, we report on the analysis by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and/or DNA sequencing of the exons of the G6PT in 14 patients diagnosed either as affected by the GSD 1b or 1c subtypes. Mutations in the G6PT gene were found in all patients. Four of the detected mutations were novel mutations, while the others were previously described. Our results confirm that the GSD 1b and 1c forms are due to mutations in the same gene, i.e. the G6PT gene. We also show that the same kind of mutation can be associated or not with evident clinical complications such as neutrophil impairment. Since no correlation between the type and position of the mutation and the severity of the disease was found, other unknown factors may cause the expression of symptoms, such as neutropenia, which dramatically influence the severity of the disease. (+info)
Liver transplantation for glycogen storage disease types I, III, and IV.
Glycogen storage disease (GSD) types I, III, and IV can be associated with severe liver disease. The possible development of hepatocellular carcinoma and/or hepatic failure make these GSDs potential candidates for liver transplantation. Early diagnosis and initiation of effective dietary therapy have dramatically improved the outcome of GSD type I by reducing the incidence of liver adenoma and renal insufficiency. Nine type I and 3 type III patients have received liver transplants because of poor metabolic control, multiple liver adenomas, or progressive liver failure. Metabolic abnormalities were corrected in all GSD type I and type III patients, while catch-up growth was reported only in two patients. Whether liver transplantation results in reversal and/or prevention of renal disease remains unclear. Neutropenia persisted in both GSDIb patients post liver transplantation necessitating continuous granulocyte colony stimulating factor treatment. Thirteen GSD type IV patients were liver transplanted because of progressive liver cirrhosis and failure. All but one patient have not had neuromuscular or cardiac complications during follow-up periods for as long as 13 years. Four have died within a week and 5 years after transplantation. Caution should be taken in selecting GSD type IV candidates for liver transplantation because of the variable phenotype, which may include life-limiting extrahepatic manifestations. It remains to be evaluated, whether a genotype-phenotype correlation exists for GSD type IV, which may aid in the decision making. CONCLUSION: Liver transplantation should be considered for patients with glycogen storage disease who have developed liver malignancy or hepatic failure, and for type IV patients with the classical and progressive hepatic form. (+info)
Correction of glycogen storage disease type 1a in a mouse model by gene therapy.
Glycogen storage disease type 1a (GSD-1a), characterized by hypoglycemia, liver and kidney enlargement, growth retardation, hyperlipidemia, and hyperuricemia, is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), a key enzyme in glucose homeostasis. To evaluate the feasibility of gene replacement therapy for GSD-1a, we have infused adenoviral vector containing the murine G6Pase gene (Ad-mG6Pase) into G6Pase-deficient (G6Pase(-/-)) mice that manifest symptoms characteristic of human GSD-1a. Whereas <15% of G6Pase(-/-) mice under glucose therapy survived weaning, a 100% survival rate was achieved when G6Pase(-/-) mice were infused with Ad-mG6Pase, 90% of which lived to 3 months of age. Hepatic G6Pase activity in Ad-mG6Pase-infused mice was restored to 19% of that in G6Pase(+/+) mice at 7-14 days post-infusion; the activity persisted for at least 70 days. Ad-mG6Pase infusion also greatly improved growth of G6Pase(-/-) mice and normalized plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and uric acid profiles. Furthermore, liver and kidney enlargement was less pronounced with near-normal levels of glycogen depositions in both organs. Our data demonstrate that a single administration of a recombinant adenoviral vector can alleviate the pathological manifestations of GSD-1a in mice, suggesting that this disorder in humans can potentially be corrected by gene therapy. (+info)
New lessons in the regulation of glucose metabolism taught by the glucose 6-phosphatase system.
The operation of glucose 6-phosphatase (EC 220.127.116.11) (Glc6Pase) stems from the interaction of at least two highly hydrophobic proteins embedded in the ER membrane, a heavily glycosylated catalytic subunit of m 36 kDa (P36) and a 46-kDa putative glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P) translocase (P46). Topology studies of P36 and P46 predict, respectively, nine and ten transmembrane domains with the N-terminal end of P36 oriented towards the lumen of the ER and both termini of P46 oriented towards the cytoplasm. P36 gene expression is increased by glucose, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) and free fatty acids, as well as by glucocorticoids and cyclic AMP; the latter are counteracted by insulin. P46 gene expression is affected by glucose, insulin and cyclic AMP in a manner similar to P36. Accordingly, several response elements for glucocorticoids, cyclic AMP and insulin regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factors were found in the Glc6Pase promoter. Mutations in P36 and P46 lead to glycogen storage disease (GSD) type-1a and type-1 non a (formerly 1b and 1c), respectively. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of P36 in hepatocytes and in vivo impairs glycogen metabolism and glycolysis and increases glucose production; P36 overexpression in INS-1 cells results in decreased glycolysis and glucose-induced insulin secretion. The nature of the interaction between P36 and P46 in controling Glc6Pase activity remains to be defined. The latter might also have functions other than Glc6P transport that are related to Glc6P metabolism. (+info)