Role of glutamine in human carbohydrate metabolism in kidney and other tissues.
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body and is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid. Until recently, the understanding of many aspects of glutamine metabolism was based on animal and in vitro data. However, recent studies using isotopic and balance techniques have greatly advanced the understanding of glutamine metabolism in humans and its role in glucose metabolism in the kidney and other tissues. There is now evidence that in postabsorptive humans, glutamine is an important glucose precursor and makes a significant contribution to the addition of new carbon to the glucose carbon pool. The importance of alanine for gluconeogenesis, viewed in terms of the addition of new carbons, is less than previously assumed. It appears that glutamine is predominantly a renal gluconeogenic substrate, whereas alanine gluconeogenesis is essentially confined to the liver. As shown recently, renal gluconeogenesis contributes 20 to 25% to whole-body glucose production. Moreover, glutamine has been shown not only to stimulate net muscle glycogen storage but also to stimulate gluconeogenesis in normal humans. Finally, in humans with type II diabetes, conversion of glutamine to glucose is increased (more so than that of alanine). The available evidence on the hormonal regulation of glutamine gluconeogenesis in kidney and liver and its alterations under pathological conditions are discussed. (+info)
Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion.
1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible. (+info)
alpha-adrenergic stimulation mediates glucose uptake through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in rat heart.
We examined whether insulin and catecholamines share common pathways for their stimulating effects on glucose uptake. We perfused isolated working rat hearts with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [2-3H]glucose (5 mmol/L, 0.05 microCi/mL) and sodium oleate (0.4 mmol/L). In the absence or presence of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor wortmannin (3 micromol/L), we added insulin (1 mU/mL), epinephrine (1 micromol/L), phenylephrine (100 micromol/L) plus propranolol (10 micromol/L, selective alpha-adrenergic stimulation), or isoproterenol (1 micromol/L) plus phentolamine (10 micromol/L, selective beta-adrenergic stimulation) to the perfusate. Cardiac power was found to be stable in all groups (between 8.07+/-0.68 and 10.7+/-0. 88 mW) and increased (25% to 47%) with addition of epinephrine, but not with selective alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation. Insulin and epinephrine, as well as selective alpha- and beta-receptor stimulation, increased glucose uptake (the following values are in micromol/[min. g dry weight]: basal, 1.19+/-0.13; insulin, 3.89+/-0.36; epinephrine, 3.46+/-0.27; alpha-stimulation, 4.08+/-0.40; and beta-stimulation, 3.72+/-0.34). Wortmannin completely inhibited insulin-stimulated and selective alpha-stimulated glucose uptake, but it did not affect the epinephrine-stimulated or selective beta-stimulated glucose uptake. Sequential addition of insulin and epinephrine or insulin and alpha-selective stimulation showed additive effects on glucose uptake in both cases. Wortmannin further blocked the effects of insulin on glycogen synthesis. We conclude that alpha-adrenergic stimulation mediates glucose uptake in rat heart through a PI3-K-dependent pathway. However, the additive effects of alpha-adrenergic stimulation and insulin suggest 2 different isoforms of PI3-K, compartmentation of PI3-K, potentiation, or inhibition by wortmannin of another intermediate of the alpha-adrenergic signaling cascade. The stimulating effects of both the alpha- and the beta-adrenergic pathways on glucose uptake are independent of changes in cardiac performance. (+info)
Effect of ambient temperature on human skeletal muscle metabolism during fatiguing submaximal exercise.
To examine the effect of ambient temperature on metabolism during fatiguing submaximal exercise, eight men cycled to exhaustion at a workload requiring 70% peak pulmonary oxygen uptake on three separate occasions, at least 1 wk apart. These trials were conducted in ambient temperatures of 3 degrees C (CT), 20 degrees C (NT), and 40 degrees C (HT). Although no differences in muscle or rectal temperature were observed before exercise, both muscle and rectal temperature were higher (P < 0.05) at fatigue in HT compared with CT and NT. Exercise time was longer in CT compared with NT, which, in turn, was longer compared with HT (85 +/- 8 vs. 60 +/- 11 vs. 30 +/- 3 min, respectively; P < 0.05). Plasma epinephrine concentration was not different at rest or at the point of fatigue when the three trials were compared, but concentrations of this hormone were higher (P < 0.05) when HT was compared with NT, which in turn was higher (P < 0.05) compared with CT after 20 min of exercise. Muscle glycogen concentration was not different at rest when the three trials were compared but was higher at fatigue in HT compared with NT and CT, which were not different (299 +/- 33 vs. 153 +/- 27 and 116 +/- 28 mmol/kg dry wt, respectively; P < 0.01). Intramuscular lactate concentration was not different at rest when the three trials were compared but was higher (P < 0.05) at fatigue in HT compared with CT. No differences in the concentration of the total intramuscular adenine nucleotide pool (ATP + ADP + AMP), phosphocreatine, or creatine were observed before or after exercise when the trials were compared. Although intramuscular IMP concentrations were not statistically different before or after exercise when the three trials were compared, there was an exercise-induced increase (P < 0.01) in IMP. These results demonstrate that fatigue during prolonged exercise in hot conditions is not related to carbohydrate availability. Furthermore, the increased endurance in CT compared with NT is probably due to a reduced glycogenolytic rate. (+info)
A tentative mechanism of the ternary complex formation between phosphorylase kinase, glycogen phosphorylase b and glycogen.
The kinetics of rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase interaction with glycogen has been studied. At pH 6.8 the binding of phosphorylase kinase to glycogen proceeds only in the presence of Mg2+, whereas at pH 8.2 formation of the complex occurs even in the absence of Mg2+. On the other hand, the interaction of phosphorylase kinase with glycogen requires Ca2+ at both pH values. The initial rate of the complex formation is proportional to the enzyme and glycogen concentrations, suggesting the formation of the complex with stoichiometry 1:1 at the initial step of phosphorylase kinase binding by glycogen. According to the kinetic and sedimentation data, the substrate of the phosphorylase kinase reaction, glycogen phosphorylase b, favors the binding of phosphorylase kinase with glycogen. We suggest a model for the ordered binding of phosphorylase b and phosphorylase kinase to the glycogen particle that explains the increase in the tightness of phosphorylase kinase binding with glycogen in the presence of phosphorylase b. (+info)
Contributions of net hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to glucose production in cirrhosis.
Net hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis were examined in normal (n = 4) and cirrhotic (n = 8) subjects using two independent methods [13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and a 2H2O method]. Rates of net hepatic glycogenolysis were calculated by the change in hepatic glycogen content before ( approximately 11:00 PM) and after ( approximately 7:00 AM) an overnight fast using 13C NMR and magnetic resonance imaging. Gluconeogenesis was calculated as the difference between the rates of glucose production determined with an infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose and net hepatic glycogenolysis. In addition, the contribution of gluconeogenesis to glucose production was determined by the 2H enrichment in C-5/C-2 of blood glucose after intake of 2H2O (5 ml/kg body water). Plasma levels of total and free insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-I binding proteins-1 and -3 were significantly decreased in the cirrhotic subjects (P < 0.01 vs. controls). Postprandial hepatic glycogen concentrations were 34% lower in the cirrhotic subjects (P = 0.007). Rates of glucose production were similar between the cirrhotic and healthy subjects [9.0 +/- 0.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.8 micromol. kg body wt-1. min-1, respectively]. Net hepatic glycogenolysis was 3.5-fold lower in the cirrhotic subjects (P = 0.01) and accounted for only 13 +/- 6% of glucose production compared with 40 +/- 10% (P = 0.03) in the control subjects. Gluconeogenesis was markedly increased in the cirrhotic subjects and accounted for 87 +/- 6% of glucose production vs. controls: 60 +/- 10% (P = 0.03). Gluconeogenesis in the cirrhotic subjects, as determined from the 2H enrichment in glucose C-5/C-2, was also increased and accounted for 68 +/- 3% of glucose production compared with 54 +/- 2% (P = 0.02) in the control subjects. In conclusion, cirrhotic subjects have increased rates of gluconeogenesis and decreased rates of net hepatic glycogenolysis compared with control subjects. These alterations are likely important contributing factors to their altered carbohydrate metabolism. (+info)
Effect of fast duration on disposition of an intraduodenal glucose load in the conscious dog.
The effects of prior fast duration (18 h, n = 8; 42 h, n = 8) on the glycemic and tissue-specific responses to an intraduodenal glucose load were studied in chronically catheterized conscious dogs. [3-3H]glucose was infused throughout the study. After basal measurements, glucose spiked with [U-14C]glucose was infused for 150 min intraduodenally. Arterial insulin and glucagon were similar in the two groups. Arterial glucose (mg/dl) rose approximately 70% more during glucose infusion after 42 h than after an 18-h fast. The net hepatic glucose balance (mg. kg-1. min-1) was similar in the two groups (basal: 1.8 +/- 0.2 and 2.0 +/- 0.3; glucose infusion: -2.2 +/- 0.5 and -2.2 +/- 0.7). The intrahepatic fate of glucose was 79% glycogen, 13% oxidized, and 8% lactate release after a 42-h fast; it was 23% glycogen, 21% oxidized, and 56% lactate release after an 18-h fast. Net hindlimb glucose uptake was similar between groups. The appearance of intraduodenal glucose during glucose infusion (mg/kg) was 900 +/- 50 and 1,120 +/- 40 after 18- and 42-h fasts (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: glucose administration after prolonged fasting induces higher circulating glucose than a shorter fast (increased appearance of intraduodenal glucose); liver and hindlimb glucose uptakes and the hormonal response, however, are unchanged; finally, an intrahepatic redistribution of carbons favors glycogen deposition. (+info)
Effect of artemether on glucose uptake and glycogen content in Schistosoma japonicum.
AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on glucose uptake and glycogen content in schistosomes. METHODS: Schistosomes recovered from mice treated intragastrically with Art 300 mg.kg-1 for 24-48 h, were incubated in the drug-free medium containing [U-14C]glucose 11.1 MBq.L-1. The glycogen content, [U-14C]glucose uptake, and incorporation of [U-14C]glucose into worm glycogen in both male and female worms were determined. RESULTS: When above-mentioned schistosomes were exposed to drug-free medium containing [U-14C]glucose for 1-24 h, the glycogen contents of male and female worms decreased 27%-61% and 39%-78%, respectively. Only 3 out of 6 male worm groups showed 23%-35% decrease in glucose uptake, while much less glucose uptake was found in female worms in all groups with reduction rates of 18%-38%. Apart from 2 male groups no apparent change in the incorporation of [U-14C]glucose into the worm glycogen was seen. CONCLUSIONS: Art-induced glycogen reduction in schistosomes was related to an inhibition of glycolysis rather than an interference with glucose uptake. (+info)