Combination of theanine with doxorubicin inhibits hepatic metastasis of M5076 ovarian sarcoma.
Theanine is a peculiar amino acid existing in green tea leaves, which was previously indicated to enhance the antitumor activity of doxorubicin. In the present study, the effect of combination of theanine with doxorubicin against hepatic metastasis of M5076 ovarian sarcoma was investigated. The primary tumor was significantly reduced by the combined treatment on M5076 transplanted (s.c.) mice. The liver weight of control mice increased to twice the normal level because of hepatic metastasis of M5076. In contrast, the injection of doxorubicin alone or theanine plus doxorubicin suppressed the increase in liver weight and inhibited hepatic metastasis. Moreover, the liver weights and metastasis scores demonstrated that theanine enhanced the inhibition of hepatic metastasis induced by doxorubicin. Furthermore, in vitro experiments indicated that theanine increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin remaining in M5076 cells. This action suggests that theanine leads the enhancement of the suppressive efficacy of doxorubicin on hepatic metastasis in vivo. Therefore, it was proved that theanine increased not only the antitumor activity on primary tumor but also the metastasis-suppressive efficacy of doxorubicin. The effect of theanine on the efficacy of antitumor agents is expected to be applicable in clinical cancer chemotherapy. (+info)
Arginine biosynthesis in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: enzymes catalyzing the formation of ornithine and citrulline.
Many of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated from patients require arginine for growth in a defined medium. As a basis for genetic studies of these Arg- strains, we examined two biosynthetic enzymes of Arg+ (nonrequiring) gonococci. Cell-free extracts contained (i) glutamate acetyltransferase, which catalyzes the formation of L-ornithine from alpha-N-acetyl-L-ornithine, and (ii) ornithine transcaramylase, which catalyzes the reaction between L-ornithine and carbamyl phosphate, yielding L-citrulline. Arg- strains were unable to utilze alpha-N-acetyl-L-ornithine for growth lacked significant activity of glutamate acetyltransferase, and activity was gained by Arg+ clones derived by DNA-mediated transformation. Some of the Arg- patient isolates were unable to use either alpha-N-acetyl-L-ornithine or L-ornithine in place of arginine, and two separate steps of genetic transformation were required to yield Arg+ cells. Extracts of these doubly auxotrophic cells lacked glutamate acetyltransferase activity, but, unexpectedly, they displayed normal ornithine transcarbamylase activity. This finding illustrates the importance of identifying the products specified by arg loci during genetic studies of arginine auxotrophy. (+info)
Absence of hydrogen peroxide production by or catalase action in Rickettsia prowazeki.
Glutamic acid oxidation by Rickettsia prowazeki is not accompanied by hydrogen peroxide generation, nor is added hydrogen peroxide degraded, as measured by a manometric technique. (+info)
One-carbon metabolism in methanogenic bacteria: analysis of short-term fixation products of 14CO2 and 14CH3OH incorporated into whole cells.
Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, M. ruminantium, and Methanosarcina barkeri were labeled with 14CO2 (14CO2 + H14CO3- + 14CO32-) for from 2 to 45 s. Radioactivity was recovered in coenzyme M derivatives, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and several unidentified compounds. The properties of one important structurally unidentified intermediate (yellow fluorescent compound) displayed UV absorbance maxima at pH 1 of 290 and 335 nm, no absorbance in the visible region, and a fluorescence maximum at 460 nm. Label did not appear in organic phosphates until after 1 min. 14CH3OH was converted by M. barkeri primarily into coenzyme M derivatives at 25 s. [2-14C]acetate was assimilated by M. thermoautotrophicum mainly into alanine and succinate during 2 to 240 s, but not into coenzyme M derivatives or yellow fluorescent compound. Cell-free extracts of M. thermoautotrophicum lacked ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity. The data indicated the absence of the Calvin, serine, and hexulose phosphate paths of C1 assimilation in the methanogens examined and indicated that pyruvate was an early intermediate product of net CO2 fixation. The in vivo importance of coenzyme M derivatives in methanogenesis was demonstrated. (+info)
Physiological and morphological observations on Thiovulum sp.
Cell suspensions of Thiovulum sp., collected from enrichment cultures, were grown, maintained, and harvested for periods up to 7 months. In open-flow cultures run with aerated seawater, a continuous supply of hydrogen sulfide was provided by diffusion through a semipermeable membrane from either a live culture of Desulfovibrio esturaii, neutralized sodium sulfide, or a N2-H2S gas mixture. Attempts to grow Thiovulum in pure culture failed despite variation in concentrations of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen sulfide in stratified as well as in completely mixed systems. Uptake of 14CO2 and some organic compounds by purified cell suspensions was measured, and values were corrected for the activity of heterotrophic as well as autotrophic contaminants as determined in control experiments. Cell populations exhibited maximum uptake activities during formation of the characteristic veils. Substantial uptake of CO2 in air-saturated seawater was coincident with an optimal concentration of hydrogen sulfide of about 1 mM. Glutamate and a selection of vitamins (B12M biotin, and thiamine) did not significantly affect the uptake of CO2. No substantial uptake of carbon from acetate, glutamate, mannitol, and Casamino Acids was found. Within the range of error indicated, the data are consistent with acceptance of a chemolithotrophic nature of Thiovulum. (+info)
Uptake and effects of copper in rat liver mitochondria.
The rate and extent of Cu2+ uptake by rat liver mitochondria was measured under various conditions. 1. The uptake is both greater and faster without an energy supply. 2. The uptake, when occuring in ionic media, has a biphasic character, that is it always slows down after an initial burst, and then re-accelerates. 3. Uptake of Cu2+ in the presence of energy initiates K+ uptake from K+-containing media with accompanying swelling and respiratory stimulation. Depending on the amounts of Cu2+ added and the K+ concentration, an inhibition of respiration later ensues. 4. Chelation of the Cu2+ by substrates (notably glutamate) decreases the effects. 5. Prior exposure to Cu2+ decreases or prevents energy-dependent Ca2+ uptake. (+info)
Microbiological degradation of bile acids. The conjugation of a certain cholic acid metabolite with amino acids in Corynebacterium equi.
1. (4R)-4[4alpha-(2-Carboxyethyl)-3aalpha-hexahydro-7abeta-methyl-5-oxoindan-1beta-y l]valeric acid (II) could not be utilized by Arthrobacter simplex, even though the acid was one of the metabolites formed from cholic acid (I) by this organism. Therefore the further degradation of the acid (II) by Corynebacterium equi was investigated to identify the intermediates involved in the cholic acid degradation. 2. The organism, cultured in a medium containing the acid (II) as the sole source of carbon, produced unexpected metabolites, the conjugates of this original acid (II) with amino acids or their derivatives, although the yield was very low. These new metabolites were isolated and identified by chemical synthesis as the Na-((4R)-4-[4alpha-(2-carboxyethyl)-3a alpha-hexahydro-7a beta-methyl-5-oxoindan-1 beta-yl]-valeryl) derivatives of L-alanine, glutamic acid, O-acetylhomoserine and glutamine, i.e. compounds (IIIa), (IIIb), (IIId) respectively. 3. The possibility that the bacterial synthetic reaction observed in the acid (II) metabolism with C. equi is analogous to peptide conjugation known in both animals and higher plants is discussed. A possible mechanism for this bacterial conjugation is also considered. (+info)
Amino acid composition of peptidoglycan in Caulobacter crescentus.
Peptidoglycan of a gram-negative stalked bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus CB13, contained alanine, diaminopimelic acid, and glutamic acid, in molar ratios of 2 : 1 : 1. The amino acid compositions of peptidoglycans isolated from cultures enriched in swarmer and stalked cells, and from a stalk-less mutant were similar. This finding conflicts with a previous observation that swarmer peptidoglycan does not contain diaminopimelic acid (Goodwin and Shedlarski (1975) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 170, 23-36). It appears that, despite the morphological differences, the Caulobacter cells all contain a similar peptidoglycan in the cell wall. (+info)