Mutant strains (nit) of Salmonella typhimurium with a pleiotropic defect in nitrogen metabolism.
We have isolated mutant strains (nit) of Salmonella typhimurium that are defective in nitrogen metabolism. They have a reduced ability to use a variety of compounds including glutamate, proline, arginine, N-acetyl-glucosamine, alanine, and adenosine as sole nitrogen source. In addition, although they grow normally on high concentrations of ammonium chloride (greater than 1 mM) as nitrogen source, they grow substantially more slowly than wild type at low concentrations (less than 1 mM). We postulated that the inability of these strains to utilize low concentrations of ammonium chloride accounts for their poor growth on other nitrogen sources. The specific biochemical lesion in strains with a nit mutation is not known; however, mutant strains have no detectable alteration in the activities of glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthetase, or glutamate dehydrogenase, the enzymes known to be involved in assimilation of ammonia. A nit mutation is suppressed by second-site mutations in the structural gene for glutamine synthetase (glnA) that decrease glutamine synthetase activity. (+info)
Carbon and ammonia metabolism of Spirillum lipoferum.
Intact cells and extracts from Spirillum lipoferum rapidly oxidized malate, succinate, lactate, and pyruvate. Glucose, galactose, fructose, acetate, and citrate did not increase the rate of O2 uptake by cells above the endogenous rate. Cells grown on NH+/4 oxidized the various substrates at about the same rate as did cells grown on N2. Added oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide generally enhanced O2 uptake by extracts supplied organic acids, whereas oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate had little effect. Nitrogenase synthesis repressed by growth of cells in the presence of NH+/4 was derepressed by methionine sulfoximine or methionine sulfone. The total glutamine synthetase activity from N2-grown cells was about eight times that from NH+/4-grown S. lipoferum; the response of glutamate dehydrogenase was the opposite. The total glutamate synthetase activity from N2-grown S. lipoferum was 1.4 to 2.6 times that from NH+/4-grown cells. The levels of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase were elevated in cells grown on N2 as compared with those grown on NH+/4. Cell-free extracts capable of reducing C2H2 have been prepared; both Mg2+ and Mn2+ are required for good activity. (+info)
Inorganic nitrogen assimilation by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata.
The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata lacks glutamate dehydrogenase and normally uses the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase sequence of reactions for assimilation of N2 and ammonia. The glutamine synthetase in cell-free extracts of the organism is completely sedimented by centrifugation at 140,000 X g for 2 h, is inhibited by L-alanine but not by adenosine 5'-monophosphate, and exhibits two apparent Km values for ammonia (ca. 13 muM and 1 mM). (+info)
Dynamics of correlated genetic systems. IV. Multilocus effects of ethanol stress environments.
Four replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster, two reared on medium supplemented with ethanol and two reared on standard medium, were electrophoretically monitored for 28 generations. During the first 12 generations, allelic, genotypic and gametic frequencies were determined for eight polymorphic enzymes: GOT, alpha-GPDH, MDH, ADH, TO, E6, Ec and ODH. Samples from generation 18 and 28 were electrophoretically typed for ADH and alpha-GPDH. In addition, samples from generation 27 were analyzed for the presence of inversion heterozygotes. The experimental results showed rapid gene-frequency divergence between control and treatment populations at the Adh locus in a direction consistent with the activity hierarchy of Adh genotypes. Gene-frequency divergence between control and treatment populations also occurred at the alpha-Gpdh locus, although the agreement among replicates appeared to have broken down by generation 28. No differential gene-frequency change occurred at any of the six remaining marker loci. Furthermore, values of linkage disequilibria among all linked pairs of genes were initially small and remained small throughout the course of the experiment. Taking these facts into account, it is argued that the gene-frequency response observed at ADH is most probably caused by selection at the Adh locus. The gene frequency response at alpha-Gpdh can also be be accounted for in terms of the effect of ethanol on energy metabolism, although other explanations cannot be excluded. (+info)
Pathways for glutamate biosynthesis in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.
Purified glutamate synthase (GOGAT) from Kluyveromyces lactis was characterized as a high-molecular-mass polypeptide, a distinction shared with previously described GOGATs from other eukaryotic micro-organisms. Using degenerate deoxyoligonucleotides, designed from conserved regions of the alfalfa, maize and Escherichia coli GOGAT genes, a 300 bp PCR fragment from the K. lactis GOGAT gene KIGLT1 was obtained. This fragment was used to construct null GOGAT mutants of K. lactis by gene replacement. These mutants showed no growth defect phenotype and were able to grow on ammonium as sole nitrogen source. Double mutants obtained from a cross between a previously described KIGDH1 mutant and the K. lactis null GOGAT strain were full glutamate auxotrophs. These results indicate that glutamate biosynthesis in K. lactis is afforded through the combined action of KIGDH1 and KIGLT1 products. (+info)
Functional properties of recombinant Azospirillum brasilense glutamate synthase, a complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein.
Azospirillum brasilense glutamate synthase is a complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein that catalyses the NADPH-dependent reductive transfer of glutamine amide group to the C(2) carbon of 2-oxoglutarate to yield L-glutamate. Its catalytically active alphabeta protomer is composed of two dissimilar subunits (alpha subunit, 164.2 kDa; beta subunit, 52.3 kDa) and contains one FAD (at Site 1, the pyridine nucleotide site within the beta subunit), one FMN (at Site 2, the 2-oxoglutarate/L-glutamate site in the alpha subunit) and three different iron-sulfur clusters (one 3Fe-4S center on the alpha subunit and two 4Fe-4S clusters of unknown location). A plasmid harboring the gltD and gltB genes, the genes encoding the glutamate synthase beta and alpha subunits, respectively, each one under the control of the T7/lac promoter of pET11a was found to be suitable for the overproduction of glutamate synthase holoenzyme in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. Recombinant A. brasilense glutamate synthase could be purified to homogeneity from overproducing E. coli cells by ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration and affinity chromatography on a 2',5' ADP-Sepharose 4B column. The purified enzyme was indistinguishable from that prepared from Azospirillum cells with respect to cofactor content, N-terminal sequence of the subunits, aggregation state, kinetic and spectroscopic properties. The study of the recombinant holoenzyme allowed us to establish that the tendency of glutamate synthase to form a stable (alphabeta)4 tetramer at high protein concentrations is a property unique to the holoenzyme, as the isolated beta subunit does not oligomerize, while the isolated glutamate synthase alpha subunit only forms dimers at high protein concentrations. Furthermore, the steady-state kinetic analysis of the glutamate synthase reaction was extended to the study of the effect of adenosine-containing nucleotides. Compounds such as cAMP, AMP, ADP and ATP have no effect on the enzyme activity, while the 2'-phosphorylated analogs of AMP and NADP(H) analogs act as inhibitors of the reaction, competitive with NADPH. Thus, it can be ruled out that glutamate synthase reaction is subjected to allosteric modulation by adenosine containing (di)nucleotides, which may bind to the putative ADP-binding site at the C-terminus of the alpha subunit. At the same time, the strict requirement of a 2'-phosphate group in the pyridine nucleotide for binding to glutamate synthase (GltS) was established. Finally, by comparing the inhibition constants exhibited by a series of NADP+ analogs, the contribution to the binding energy of the various parts of the pyridine nucleotide has been determined along with the effect of substituents on the 3 position of the pyridine ring. With the exception of thio-NADP+, which binds the tightest to GltS, it appears that the size of the substituent is the factor that affects the most the interaction between the NADP(H) analog and the enzyme. (+info)
Inactivation of gltB abolishes expression of the assimilatory nitrate reductase gene (nasB) in Pseudomonas putida KT2442.
By using mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, random transcriptional fusions of promoterless bacterial luciferase, luxAB, to genes of Pseudomonas putida KT2442 were generated. Insertion mutants that responded to ammonium deficiency by induction of bioluminescence were selected. The mutant that responded most strongly was genetically analyzed and is demonstrated to bear the transposon within the assimilatory nitrate reductase gene (nasB) of P. putida KT2442. Genetic evidence as well as sequence analyses of the DNA regions flanking nasB suggest that the genes required for nitrate assimilation are not clustered. We isolated three second-site mutants in which induction of nasB expression was completely abolished under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the chromosomal junctions revealed that in all three mutants the secondary transposon had inserted at different sites in the gltB gene of P. putida KT2442 encoding the major subunit of the glutamate synthase. A detailed physiological characterization of the gltB mutants revealed that they are unable to utilize a number of potential nitrogen sources, are defective in the ability to express nitrogen starvation proteins, display an aberrant cell morphology under nitrogen-limiting conditions, and are impaired in the capacity to survive prolonged nitrogen starvation periods. (+info)
Role of GOGAT in carbon and nitrogen partitioning in Rhizobium etli.
The isolation and characterization of a Rhizobium etli glutamate auxotroph, TAD12, harbouring a single Tn5 insertion, is reported. This mutant produced no detectable glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activity. The cloning and physical characterization of a 7.2 kb fragment of R. etli DNA harbouring the structural genes gltB and gltD encoding the two GOGAT subunits GltB and GltD is also reported. In comparison with the wild-type strain (CFN42), the GOGAT mutant strain utilized less succinate and glutamate and grew less with this and other amino acids as nitrogen source. R. etli assimilates ammonium by the glutamine synthetase (GS)-GOGAT pathway and a GOGAT mutant prevents the cycling of glutamine by this pathway, something that impairs nitrogen and carbon metabolism and explains the decrease in the amino-nitrogen during exponential growth, with glutamate as nitrogen source. GOGAT activity also has a role in ammonium turnover and in the synthesis of amino acids and proteins, processes that are necessary to sustain cell viability in non-growing conditions. The assimilation of ammonium is important during symbiosis and glutamate constitutes 20-40% of the total amino-nitrogen. In symbiosis, the blockage of ammonium assimilation by a GOGAT mutation significantly decreases the amino-nitrogen pool of the bacteroids and may explain why more N(2) is fixed in ammonium, excreted to the plant cell, transported to the leaves and stored in the seeds. (+info)