(1/966) The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. The tryptic peptides.
The NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa was digested with trypsin, and peptides accounting for 441 out of the 452 residues of the polypeptide chain were isolated and substantially sequenced. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50052 (11 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem J. (1975) 145, 5. (+info)
(2/966) The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptides from digestion with a staphylococcal proteinase.
The extracellular proteinase of Staphylococcus aureus strain V8 was used to digest the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa. Of 35 non-overlapping peptides expected from the glutamate content of the polypeptide chain, 29 were isolated and substantially sequenced. The sequences obtained were valuable in providing overlaps for the alignment of about two-thirds of the sequences found in tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J, G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 739-748]. The blocked N-terminal peptide of the protein was isolated. This peptide was sequenced by mass spectrometry, and found to have N-terminal N-acetylserine by Howard R. Morris and Anne Dell, whose results are presented as an Appendix to the main paper. The staphylococcal proteinase showed very high specificity for glutamyl bonds in the NH4HCO3 buffer used. Partial splits of two aspartyl bonds, both Asp-Ile, were probably attributable to the proteinase. No cleavage of glutaminyl or S-carboxymethylcysteinyl bonds was found. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50053 (5 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K, from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 1458 5. (+info)
(3/966) The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptic and chymotryptic peptides and the complete sequence.
Peptic and chymotryptic peptides were isolated form the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa and substantially sequenced. Out of 452 residues in the polypeptide chain, 265 were recovered in the peptic and 427 in the chymotryptic peptides. Together with the tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J. G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 749-755], these establish the complete sequence of the chain, including the acid and amide assignments, except for seven places where overlaps are inadequate. These remaining alignments are deduced from information on the CNBr fragments obtained in another laboratory [Blumenthal, K. M., Moon, K. & Smith, E. L. (1975), J. Biol. Chem. 250, 3644-3654]. Further information has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50054 (17 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 145, 5. (+info)
(4/966) Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates.
1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate. (+info)
(5/966) The effect of bile salts and calcium on isolated rat liver mitochondria.
Intact mitochondria were incubated with and without calcium in solutions of chenodeoxycholate, ursodeoxycholate, or their conjugates. Glutamate dehydrogenase, protein and phospholipid release were measured. Alterations in membrane and organelle structure were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Chenodeoxycholate enhanced enzyme liberation, solubilized protein and phospholipid, and increased protein spin label mobility and the polarity of the hydrophobic membrane interior, whereas ursodeoxycholate and its conjugates did not damage mitochondria. Preincubation with ursodeoxycholate or its conjugate tauroursodeoxycholate for 20 min partially prevented damage by chenodeoxycholate. Extended preincubation even with 1 mM ursodeoxycholate could no longer prevent structural damage. Calcium (from 0.01 mM upward) augmented the damaging effect of chenodeoxycholate (0.15-0.5 mM). The combined action of 0.01 mM calcium and 0.15 mM chenodeoxycholate was reversed by ursodeoxycholate only, not by its conjugates tauroursodeoxycholate and glycoursodeoxycholate. In conclusion, ursodeoxycholate partially prevents chenodeoxycholate-induced glutamate dehydrogenase release from liver cell mitochondria by membrane stabilization. This holds for shorter times and at concentrations below 0.5 mM only, indicating that the different constitution of protein-rich mitochondrial membranes does not allow optimal stabilization such as has been seen in phospholipid- and cholesterol-rich hepatocyte cell membranes, investigated previously. (+info)
(6/966) Purification and characterization of cold-active L-glutamate dehydrogenase independent of NAD(P) and oxygen.
L-Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) independent of NAD(P) and oxygen was first obtained from the psychrotrophic bacterium Aeromonas sp. L101, originally isolated from the organs of salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). GLDH was purified by a series of chromatography steps on DEAE-Sepharose, Superdex 200pg, Q-Sepharose, CM-Sepharose, and Phenyl-Sepharose. The purified protein was determined to have a molecular mass of 110 kDa and a pI of 5.7. Maximum activity was obtained at 55 degrees C and pH 8.5. The activity of GLDH at 4 and 20 degrees C was 38 and 50%, respectively, of that at 50 degrees C. GLDH was coupled to cytochrome c and several redox dyes including 1-methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methylsulfate (1-Methoxy PMS), 2, 6-dichlorophenylindophenol (DCIP), 9-dimethylaminobenzo[alpha]phenoxazin-7-ium chloride (meldola's blue), 3,3'-[3,3'-dimethoxy-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4, 4'-diyl]-bis[2-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-2H tetrazolium chloride] (nitroblue tetrazolium; NBT), and 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-2H tetrazolium (INT). The presence of NAD(P) and oxygen gave no oxidation activity to GLDH. Spectroscopic profile and ICP data indicated a b-type cytochrome containing iron. (+info)
(7/966) Reactive cysteine residue of bovine brain glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins.
Protein chemical studies of glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins (GDH I and GDH II) from bovine brain reveal that one cystein residue is accessible for reaction with thiol-modifying reagent. Reaction of the two types of GDH isoproteins with p-chloromercuribenzoic acid resulted in a time-dependent loss of enzyme activity. The inactivation followed pseudo first-order kinetics with the second-order rate constant of 83 M(-1) s(-1) and 75 M(-1) s(-1) for GDH I and GDH II, respectively. The inactivation was partially prevented by preincubation of the glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins with NADH. A combination of 10 mM 2-oxoglutarate with 2 mM NADH gave complete protection against the inactivation. There were no significant differences between the two glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins in their sensitivities to inactivation by p-chloromercuribenzoic indicating that the microenvironmental structures of the GDH isoproteins are very similar to each other. Allosteric effectors such as ADP and GTP had no effects on the inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins by thiol-modifying reagents. By a combination of peptide mapping analysis and labeling with [14C] p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, a reactive cystein residue was identified as Cys323 in the overall sequence. The cysteine residue was clearly identical to sequences of other GDH species known. (+info)
(8/966) Cyclic AMP can decrease expression of genes subject to catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
External cyclic AMP (cAMP) hindered the derepression of gluconeogenic enzymes in a pde2 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but it did not prevent invertase derepression. cAMP reduced nearly 20-fold the transcription driven by upstream activation sequence (UAS1FBP1) from FBP1, encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase; it decreased 2-fold the activation of transcription by UAS2FBP1. Nuclear extracts from cells derepressed in the presence of cAMP were impaired in the formation of specific UASFBP1-protein complexes in band shift experiments. cAMP does not appear to act through the repressing protein Mig1. Control of FBP1 transcription through cAMP is redundant with other regulatory mechanisms. (+info)