Regulation and function of family 1 and family 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes (UGT1A, UGT2B) in human oesophagus.
Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8719-8726]. Previous work suggests that these enzymes play a protective role in chemical carcinogenesis [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 2979-2985]. In this study, UGT1 and UGT2 gene expression was investigated in human oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma in addition to the characterization of individual UGT isoforms using recombinant protein. UGT mRNA expression was characterized by duplex reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis and revealed the expression of UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 mRNAs. UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5 and UGT1A6 transcripts were not detected. UGT2 expression included UGT2B7, UGT2B10 and UGT2B15, but UGT2B4 mRNA was absent. UGT2 mRNA was present at significantly lower levels than UGT1 transcripts. This observation was in agreement with the analysis of catalytic activities in oesophageal microsomal protein, which was characterized by high glucuronidation rates for phenolic xenobiotics, all of which are classical UGT1 substrates. Whereas UGT1A9 was not regulated, differential regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10 mRNA was observed between normal oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma. Expression and analysis in vitro of recombinant UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 demonstrated that UGT1A7, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 catalysed the glucuronidation of 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene, as well as other environmental carcinogens, such as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-(4, 5-beta)-pyridine. Although UGT1A9 was not regulated in the carcinoma tissue, the five-fold reduction in 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene glucuronidation could be attributed to regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10. These data elucidate an individual regulation of human UGT1A and UGT2B genes in human oesophagus and provide evidence for specific catalytic activities of individual human UGT isoforms towards environmental carcinogens that have been implicated in cellular carcinogenesis. (+info)
Hyaluronan synthase expression in bovine eyes.
PURPOSE: Hyaluronan (HA), a high-molecular-weight linear glycosaminoglycan, is a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). It is expressed in eyes and plays important roles in many biologic processes, including cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Hyaluronan is produced by HA synthase (HAS), which has three isoforms: HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3. In this study, the HAS expression in the anterior segment of bovine eyes was investigated to determine the significance of HA in eyes. METHODS: To obtain bovine HAS probes, degenerate oligonucleotide primers, based on well-conserved amino acid sequences including the catalytic region of each HAS isoform, were used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify mRNA from bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs). Hyaluronan synthase-1 expression in the anterior segment of bovine eyes at the protein level was investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: All three HAS isoforms were expressed in BCECs at the mRNA level. Amplified cDNA fragments of HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 from BCECs can be aligned to human counterparts, showing similarities of 100%, 97.3%, and 100%, respectively, at the amino acid level. Hyaluronan synthase 1 was expressed at the protein level in corneal epithelium, keratocyte, corneal endothelium, conjunctival epithelium, ciliary epithelium, capillary endothelium, and trabecular meshwork. CONCLUSIONS: Hyaluronan synthase isoforms were expressed in the ocular anterior segment and are speculated to be involved in HA production in situ. (+info)
Overproduction of hyaluronan by expression of the hyaluronan synthase Has2 enhances anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity.
Hyaluronan (HA) has long been implicated in malignant transformation and tumor progression. However, due to the lack of molecular tools to directly manipulate production of HA, which does not require a core protein for its synthesis, our understanding of the role of HA in tumor cells has been largely circumstantial. In this study, we genetically manipulated the production of HA by transfection of a mammalian HA synthase Has2 into human HT1080 cells and examined the malignant phenotype of transfected cells. We found that increased production of HA promotes anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity of the cells. Has2-transfected cells formed greater numbers of colonies in semisolid medium. Tumors in nude mice derived from Has2-transfected cells grew more rapidly and were 2-4 times larger than those derived from control cells at termination of experiments. Histological and biochemical analyses of tumors revealed no significant differences in cell density and tissue structures between them, indicating that the larger size of the tumors was due to enhanced cell proliferation, not to increased accumulation of tumor stroma or increased angiogenesis. These results demonstrate that HA production by tumor cells per se promotes proliferation of these cells in tissues and provides direct evidence for the role of HA in tumorigenicity. (+info)
Formation of HNK-1 determinants and the glycosaminoglycan tetrasaccharide linkage region by UDP-GlcUA:Galactose beta1, 3-glucuronosyltransferases.
While expression-cloning enzymes involved in heparan sulfate biosynthesis, we isolated a cDNA that encodes a protein 65% identical to the UDP-GlcUA:glycoprotein beta1, 3-glucuronosyltransferase (GlcUAT-P) involved in forming HNK-1 carbohydrate epitopes (3OSO3GlcUAbeta1,3Gal-) on glycoproteins. The cDNA contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 335 amino acids with a predicted type II transmembrane protein orientation. Cotransfection of the cDNA with HNK-1 3-O-sulfotransferase produced HNK-1 carbohydrate epitopes in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells. In vitro, a soluble recombinant form of the enzyme transferred GlcUA in beta-linkage to Galbeta1,3/4GlcNAcbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol, which resembles the core oligosaccharide on which the HNK-1 epitope is assembled. However, the enzyme greatly preferred Galbeta1, 3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol, a disaccharide component found in the linkage region tetrasaccharide in chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate. During the course of this study, a human cDNA clone was described that was thought to encode UDP-GlcUA:Galbeta1,3Gal-R glucuronosyltransferase (GlcUAT-I), involved in the formation of the linkage region of glycosaminoglycans (Kitagawa, H., Tone, Y., Tamura, J., Neumann, K. W., Ogawa, T., Oka, S., Kawasaki, T., and Sugahara, K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 6615-6618). The deduced amino acid sequences of the CHO and human cDNAs are 95% identical, suggesting that they are in fact homologues of the same gene. Transfection of a CHO cell mutant defective in GlcUAT-I with the hamster cDNA restored glycosaminoglycan assembly in vivo, confirming its identity. Interestingly, transfection of the mutant with GlcUAT-P also restored glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Thus, both GlcUAT-P and GlcUAT-I have overlapping substrate specificities. However, the expression of the two genes was entirely different, with GlcUAT-I expressed in all tissues tested and GlcUAT-P expressed only in brain. These findings suggest that, in neural tissues, GlcUAT-P may participate in both HNK-1 and glycosaminoglycan production. (+info)
(TA)8 allele in the UGT1A1 gene promoter of a Caucasian with Gilbert's syndrome.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gilbert's syndrome, a chronic non-hemolytic unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1). This reduction has been shown to be due to a polymorphism in the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene. The presence of seven thymine adenine (TA) repeats reduces the efficiency of transcription of the UGT1A1 gene. To elucidate the genetic background of a patient affected by Gilbert's syndrome, we collected blood samples from family members for the analysis of the A(TA)nTAA motif in the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene. DESIGN AND METHODS: Analysis of the A(TA)nTAA motif in the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene was performed by PCR. Estimation of UGT1A1 promoter containing the variable (TA) repeats was performed by using a luciferase reporter system. RESULTS: Three different genotypes were identified due to the presence of (TA)6, (TA)7 and (TA)8 repeats. The production of luciferase decreases in inverse relation to the number of repeats. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The (TA)7 polymorphism, associated with Gilbert syndrome, is the only allele found up to now in white populations, while two other variants (TA)5 and (TA)8 have been identified in black populations. We describe here the first case of a subject affected by Gilbert's syndrome who is heterozygous for the (TA)8 allele in the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene. This polymorphism, as well as the (TA)7 one, is associated with an increased level of bilirubin and a significant reduction of transcription activity of the UGT1A1 gene. (+info)
Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a monkey steroid UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT2B19, that conjugates testosterone.
Although enzymatic processes involved in the formation of active steroids are well known, less information is available about the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of these hormones. Moreover, the expression of these catabolic enzymes, which include UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, may play a role in the regulation of the level and action of steroid hormones in steroid target tissues. Previous studies have shown that the cynomolgus monkey contains high levels of circulating androgen glucuronides, indicating that it represents the best animal model to study the glucuronidation of steroids in extrahepatic tissues. Two cDNA libraries were constructed from monkey liver and prostate mRNA, and a novel UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT2B cDNA, UGT2B19, was isolated from both libraries. The UGT2B19 cDNA is 2108 bp in length and contains an open reading frame of 1584 bp encoding a protein of 528 residues. The UGT2B19 cDNA clone was transfected into HK293 cells and a stable cell line expressing UGT2B19 protein was established. The activity of UGT2B19 on 3alpha-hydroxy and 17beta-hydroxy positions of steroids was demonstrated. The enzyme also conjugates xenobiotics including eugenol, 1-naphthol and p-nitrophenol. Kinetic analysis revealed that UGT2B19 glucuronidates steroids with Km values of 1.6, 2.6 and 4.3 microm for testosterone, etiocholanolone and 5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol, respectively. UGT2B19 transcript was detected, by specific reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis in the liver, ovary, prostate, colon, spleen, kidney, pancreas, brain, cerebellum, mammary gland and epididymis. The molecular characterization of simian UGT2B19 demonstrates relevance of using monkey as an animal model to study and understand steroid glucuronidation in extrahepatic target tissue. (+info)
Substrate specificity and properties of uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase purified to apparent homogeneity from phenobarbital-treated rat liver.
1. The purification to homogeneity of stable highly active preparations of UDP-glucuronyltransferase from liver of phenobarbital-treated rats is briefly described. 2. A single polypeptide was visible after sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, of mol.wt.57000. 3. Antiserum raised against the pure enzyme produces a single sharp precipitin line after Ouchterlony double-diffusion analysis. 4. The pure UDP-glucuronyltransferase isolated from livers of untreated and phenobarbital-pretreated rats appears to be the same enzyme. 5. The Km (UDP-glucuronic acid) of the pure enzyme is 5.4 mM. 6. The activity of the pure enzyme towards 2-aminophenol can still be activated 2-3-fold by diethylnitrosamine. 7. UDP-glucose and UDP-galacturonic acid are not substrates for the purified enzyme. 8. The final preparation catalysed the glucuronidation of 4-nitrophenol, 1-naphthol, 2-aminophenol, morphine and 2-aminobenzoate. 9. Activities towards 4-nitrophenol, 1-naphthol and 2-aminophenol were all copurified. The proposed heterogeneity of UDP-glucuronyltransferase is discussed. (+info)
Functional heterogeneity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase as indicated by its differential development and inducibility by glucocorticoids. Demonstration of two groups within the enzyme's activity towards twelve substrates.
1. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity towards 12 substrates has been assessed in rat liver during the perinatal period. 2. Between days 16 and 20 of gestation, enzyme activities towards the substrates 2-aminophenol, 2-aminobenzoate, 4-nitrophenol, 1-naphthol, 4-methylumbelliferone and 5-hydroxytryptamine (the 'late foetal' group) surge to reach adult values, while activities towards bilirubin, testosterone, beta-oestradiol, morphine, phenolphthalein, and chloramphenicol (the 'neonatal' group) remain negligible or at less than 10% of adult values. 3. By the second postnatal day, enzyme activities towards the neonatal group have attained, or approached adult values. 4. Dexamethasone precociously stimulates in 17-day foetal liver in utero transferase activities in the late foetal, but not the neonatal group. A similar inductive pattern is found for 15-day foetal liver in organ culture. 5. It is suggested that foetal glucocorticoids, whose synthesis markedly increases between days 16 and 20 of gestation, are responsibile for triggering the simultaneous surge of all the hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities in the late foetal group. The neonatal group of activities apparently require a different or additional stimulus for their appearance. 6. The relationship of these two groups of transferase activities to other similar groups observed during induction by xenobiotics and enzyme purification is discussed. (+info)