(1/749) Identification of glucoside and carboxyl-linked glucuronide conjugates of mycophenolic acid in plasma of transplant recipients treated with mycophenolate mofetil.
1. Mycophenolic acid (MPA), is primarily metabolized in the liver to 7-O-MPA-beta-glucuronide (MPAG). Using RP-h.p.l.c. we observed three further MPA metabolites, M-1, M-2, M-3, in plasma of transplant recipients on MMF therapy. To obtain information on the structure and source of these metabolites: (A) h.p.l.c. fractions containing either metabolite or MPA were collected and analysed by tandem mass spectrometry; (B) the metabolism of MPA was studied in human liver microsomes in the presence of UDP-glucuronic acid, UDP-glucose or NADPH; (C) hydrolysis of metabolites was investigated using beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase or NaOH; (D) cross-reactivity of each metabolite was tested in an immunoassay for MPA (EMIT). 2. Mass spectrometry of M-1, M-2, MPA and MPAG in the negative ion mode revealed molecular ions of m/z 481, m/z 495, m/z 319 and m/z 495 respectively. 3. Incubation of microsomes with MPA and UDP-glucose produced M-1, with MPA and UDP-glucuronic acid MPAG and M-2 were formed, while with MPA and NADPH, M-3 was observed. 4. Beta-Glucosidase hydrolysed M-1 completely. Beta-Glucuronidase treatment led to a complete disappearance of MPAG whereas the amount of M-2 was reduced by approximately 30%. Only M-2 was labile to alkaline treatment. 5. M-2 and MPA but not M-1 and MPAG cross-reacted in the EMIT assay. 6. These results suggest that: (i) M-1 is the 7-OH glucose conjugate of MPA; (ii) M-2 is the acyl glucuronide conjugate of MPA; (iii) M-3 is derived from the hepatic CYP450 system. (+info)
(2/749) The apparent inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase by mycophenolic acid glucuronide is attributable to the presence of trace quantities of mycophenolic acid.
BACKGROUND: Mycophenolic acid glucuronide, the primary metabolite of the immunosuppressive agent mycophenolic acid, affords weak inhibition of proliferating and resting lymphocytes and recombinant human inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase in comparison to the active drug. We evaluated the hypothesis that mycophenolic acid is a trace contaminant of the glucuronide metabolite preparation and that this accounts for the observed effects of mycophenolic acid glucuronide on human inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase catalytic activity both in lymphocytes and the pure enzyme. METHODS: We used negative ion electrospray HPLC-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and HPLC-tandem MS (HPLC-MS-MS) to identify mycophenolic acid as a contaminant of mycophenolic acid glucuronide. Quantification of the mycophenolic acid contaminant was achieved using a negative ion electrospray HPLC-MS method in the selected-ion monitoring mode. RESULTS: Trace amounts of mycophenolic acid were detected and definitively identified in the mycophenolic acid glucuronide preparation by the HPLC-MS-MS analysis. In addition to having identical HPLC retention times, pure mycophenolic acid and the contaminant produced the following major fragments upon HPLC-MS-MS analysis: deprotonated molecular ion, m/z 319; and fragment ions, m/z 275, 243, 205, and 191 (the most abundant fragment ion). Using the negative ion electrospray HPLC-MS procedure in the selected-ion monitoring mode, the quantity of the contaminant mycophenolic acid was determined to be 0.312% +/- 0.0184% on a molar basis. CONCLUSION: These data provide strong support for the proposal that the apparent inhibition of the target enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase by mycophenolic acid glucuronide is attributable to the presence of trace amounts of contaminant mycophenolic acid. (+info)
(3/749) Disposition and chemical stability of telmisartan 1-O-acylglucuronide.
Telmisartan 1-O-acylglucuronide, the principal metabolite of telmisartan in humans, was characterized in terms of chemical stability and the structure of its isomerization products was elucidated. In addition, pharmacokinetics of telmisartan 1-O-acylglucuronide were assessed in rats after i.v. dosing. Similar to other acylglucuronides, telmisartan 1-O-acylglucuronide and diclofenac 1-O-acylglucuronide, which was used for comparison, showed the formation of different isomeric acylglucuronides on incubation in aqueous buffer. The isomeric acylglucuronides of telmisartan consisted of the 2-O-, 3-O-, and 4-O-acylglucuronides (alpha,beta-anomers). First order degradation half-lives of 26 and 0. 5 h were observed on incubation in buffer of pH 7.4 for the 1-O-acylglucuronides of telmisartan and diclofenac, respectively. This indicated that the 1-O-acylglucuronide of telmisartan was among the most stable acylglucuronides reported to date. The high stability of telmisartan 1-O-acylglucuronide was confirmed by in vitro experiments that indicated only very low covalent binding of telmisartan acylglucuronide to human serum albumin but a considerable amount of covalently bound radioactivity with the acylglucuronide of diclofenac. After i.v. dosing to rats, telmisartan 1-O-acylglucuronide was rapidly cleared from plasma with a clearance of 180 ml/min/kg, compared with 15.6 ml/min/kg for the parent compound. Because telmisartan 1-O-acylglucuronide exhibited a comparably high chemical stability together with a high clearance that resulted in low systemic exposure, the amount of covalent binding to proteins should be negligible compared with other frequently used drugs, such as furosemide, ibuprofen, or salicylic acid. (+info)
(4/749) Studies on the substrate specificity of human intestinal UDP- lucuronosyltransferases 1A8 and 1A10.
Although the liver has been considered the most important organ involved in glucuronidation, recent studies have focused on the role of the gastrointestinal tract in the glucuronidation of xenobiotics and endobiotics. Two UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms of human intestinal mucosa, which are absent in liver, have been identified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. mRNAs of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 were detected in both the small intestine and the colon. The corresponding cDNAs for UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 were cloned from ileal RNA and inserted into the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3. Transfection of the cDNAs into human embryonic kidney 293 cells was carried out and stable expression was achieved. Membrane preparations from human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing either UGT1A8 or UGT1A10 were isolated and the expression of each isoform was analyzed by Western blot. The catalytic activity of stably expressed UGT1A8 toward catechol estrogens, coumarins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds was much higher than that of UGT1A10. UGT1A8, but not UGT1A10, catalyzed the glucuronidation of opioids, bile acids, fatty acids, retinoids, and clinically useful drugs, such as ciprofibrate, furosemide, and diflunisal. These studies suggest that human intestinal UGTs may play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotic compounds and, in some cases, limit the bioavailability of therapeutic agents. (+info)
(5/749) Glucuronidation of benzidine and its metabolites by cDNA-expressed human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and pH stability of glucuronides.
Although glucuronidation is considered a necessary step in aromatic amine-induced bladder cancer, the specific enzymes involved are not known. This study assessed the capacity of five different human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases expressed in COS-1 cells to glucuronidate benzidine, its metabolites and 4-aminobiphenyl. [(14)C]UDP-glucuronic acid was used as co-substrate. UGT1A1, UGT1A4 and UGT1A9 each metabolized all of the aromatic amines. UGT1A9 exhibited the highest relative rates of metabolism with preference for the two hydroxamic acids, N-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine and N-hydroxy-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine. UGT1A9 metabolized 4-aminobiphenyl approximately 50% faster than benzidine or N-acetylbenzidine. UGT1A4 N-glucuronidated N'-hydroxy- N-acetylbenzidine at the highest relative rate compared with the other transferases. UGT1A6 was effective in metabolizing only four of the eight aromatic amines tested. UGT1A1 demonstrated more extensive metabolism of the hydroxamic acid, N-hydroxy-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine, and the ring oxidation product, 3-OH-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine, than it did for the other six amines. UGT2B7 was the only product of the UGT2 gene family examined and it metabolized all the aromatic amines at similar low relative levels compared with a preferred substrate, 4-OH-estrone. The K(m) values for N-acetylbenzidine metabolism by UGT1A1 and UGT1A4 were 0.37 +/- 0.14 and 1.8 +/- 0.4 mM, respectively. The O-glucuronide of 3-OH-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine was not hydrolyzed during a 24 h 37 degrees C incubation at either pH 5. 5 or 7.4. Likewise, the O-glucuronide of 3-OH-benzidine was stable at pH 7.4, with 52% remaining at pH 5.5 after 24 h. These results suggest the following relative ranking of transferase metabolism: UGT1A9 > UGT1A4 > > UGT2B7 > UGT1A6 approximately UGT1A1. The relative pH stability of O-glucuronides is consistent with a role in detoxification and excretion of aromatic amines, while the acid lability of N-glucuronides is consistent with delivery of these amines to the bladder epithelium for activation, resulting in DNA adducts which may lead to mutations. (+info)
(6/749) Determination of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, and morphine-6-glucuronide in plasma after intravenous and intrathecal morphine administration using HPLC with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry.
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization (API) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a useful technique in the direct analysis of low concentrations of conjugated opiate metabolites. Previous methods using HPLC with traditional detection methods do not have the sensitivity to detect low concentrations of most conjugated drug metabolites. Methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) require hydrolysis and derivatization of the sample followed by an indirect quantitation of conjugated metabolites. Recently, several reports have described direct analysis of opiates and their glucuronide conjugates by HPLC and API-MS. These methods report lower limits of detection than GC-MS methods and quantitation in the low nanogram-per-milliliter range for the glucuronide metabolites of morphine. This report describes an HPLC-electrospray-MS-MS method capable of detecting subnanogram concentrations of morphine (MOR) and its 3- and 6-glucuronide metabolites (M3G and M6G, respectively). The assay has a dynamic range of 250-10,000 pg/mL for M3G and M6G and 500-10,000 pg/mL for MOR. Inter- and intra-assay precision and accuracy varied by less than 8% for all analytes at 750-, 2500-, and 7500-pg/mL concentrations. This assay was used for the determination of MOR, M3G, and M6G in human plasma after intravenous (i.v.) and intrathecal (i.t.) administration of MOR and its effects on the ventilatory response to hypoxia. Peak plasma concentrations of MOR and M6G were measured 1 h after i.v. administration of MOR. Peak concentrations of M3G were measured 2 h after i.v. administration of MOR. After i.t. administration of MOR, peak concentrations of M3G were measured 8 h postdose. MOR was not detected in plasma of patients administered MOR i.t.. Subnanogram concentrations of M6G were measured in the plasma of five of nine patients administered MOR i.t.. (+info)
(7/749) Conjugation of the enantiomers of ketotifen to four isomeric quaternary ammonium glucuronides in humans in vivo and in liver microsomes.
The antiallergic drug ketotifen is chiral due to a nonplanar seven-membered ring containing a keto group. Earlier studies have revealed glucuronidation at the tertiary amino group as a major metabolic pathway in humans. Chemical synthesis of glucuronides from racemic ketotifen now led to four isomers separable by HPLC of which two each could be ascribed to (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-ketotifen by synthesis from the enantiomers. According to (1)H NMR analysis of the (S)-ketotifen N-glucuronides, the conformation of the piperidylidene ring differs between the two isomers. Enzymatic hydrolysis with Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase proceeded at a lower rate with the slower eluting (S)-ketotifen glucuronide than with the three other isomers. On incubation of the ketotifen enantiomers (0.5-200 microM) with human liver microsomes in the presence of UDP-glucuronic acid and Triton X-100, the N-glucuronides of (R)-ketotifen were produced with an apparent K(M) 15 microM and V(max) 470 pmol/min/mg protein. The two (S)-ketotifen glucuronides were formed by two-enzyme kinetics with K(M1) 1.3 microM and K(M2) 92 microM and V(max) values of 60 and 440 pmol/min/mg protein. After ingestion of 1 mg of racemic ketotifen, 10 healthy subjects excreted in urine 17 +/- 5% of the dose in the form of N-glucuronides. The (R)-ketotifen glucuronide isomers contributed one-sixth only, whereas the remainder consisted primarily of the (S)-ketotifen glucuronide isomer, which eluted last. Differential hydrolysis or membrane transport may be responsible for the discrepancy between N-glucuronide isomer ratios in vitro and in vivo. (+info)
(8/749) Combination of oxaliplatin plus irinotecan in patients with gastrointestinal tumors: results of two independent phase I studies with pharmacokinetics.
PURPOSE: Two phase I studies of the oxaliplatin and irinotecan combination were performed in advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients to characterize the safety and pharmacokinetics of the regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with a performance status (PS) of < or = 2 and normal hematologic, hepatic, and renal functions received oxaliplatin (2-hour intravenous infusion) followed 1 hour later by irinotecan administered over a 30-minute period, every 3 weeks. Dose levels that were explored ranged from 85 to 110 mg/m(2) for oxaliplatin and 150 to 250 mg/m(2) for irinotecan. Plasma pharmacokinetics of total and ultrafiltrable platinum, irinotecan, SN-38, and its glucuronide, SN-38G, were determined. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients with gastrointestinal carcinomas (24 with colorectal cancer [CRC], four with pancreas cancer, four with gastric cancer, three with hepatocarcinoma, and four with other) received 216 treatment cycles. Median age was 54 years (range, 21 to 72 years); 95% had PS of 0 to 1; all but six had failed fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy. The maximum-tolerated dose was oxaliplatin 110 mg/m(2) plus irinotecan 200 mg/m(2) in one study and oxaliplatin 110 mg/m(2) plus irinotecan 250 mg/m(2) in the other study. Grade 3 to 4 diarrhea and febrile neutropenia were dose-limiting toxicities; other toxicities included emesis and dose-cumulative neuropathy. Recommended dose for phase II studies is oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2) and irinotecan 200 mg/m(2). At this dose (12 patients, 65 cycles), grade 3 and 4 toxicities per patient included the following: emesis in 42% of patients, neutropenia in 33% (febrile episodes in 17%), peripheral neuropathy in 25%, delayed diarrhea in 17%, and thrombocytopenia in 8%. Two patients with Gilbert's syndrome experienced severe irinotecan toxicity. No plasmatic pharmacokinetic interactions were detected. Seven partial responses were observed in 24 CRC patients. CONCLUSION: This combination is feasible, with activity in 5-FU-resistant CRC patients. Phase I studies that explore the every-2-weeks schedule, in addition to phase II studies of this schedule (as well as in combination with 5-FU) as second-line therapy of metastatic CRC, are ongoing. (+info)