Conversion of glucosinolates to isothiocyanates in humans after ingestion of cooked watercress.
Isothiocyanates (ITCs), major constituents of cruciferous vegetables, can inhibit tumorigenesis in rodents by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens. ITCs that occur as glucosinolates are released by myrosinase-mediated hydrolysis when raw vegetables are chopped or chewed. However, because cruciferous vegetables are commonly consumed by humans after being cooked, it is important to examine whether dietary glucosinolates are converted to ITCs after cooked cruciferous vegetables in which myrosinase is deactivated have been consumed. This information is useful for evaluating the potential role of ITCs in cruciferous vegetables in the protection against human cancers. A urinary marker, based on a cyclocondensation product formed by the reaction of ITCs and their conjugates with 1,2-benzenedithiol, was used to quantify the uptake of dietary ITCs in humans. At breakfast and lunch, nine volunteers consumed a total of 350 g of cooked watercress in which the myrosinase activity was completely deactivated. On the basis of the analysis of ITCs in the cooked watercress upon adding exogenous myrosinase, the amount of glucosinolates ingested by each subject was estimated to be 475 micromol. The 24-h urine samples showed that the total urinary excretion of ITC conjugates in the subjects ranged from 5.6 to 34.8 micromol, corresponding to 1.2-7.3% of the total amount ingested. On the basis of our previous results that approximately 50% of dietary ITCs were excreted in the urine as conjugates, these values represent the minimal in vivo conversion of glucosinolates to ITCs. For purposes of comparison, we carried out a second experiment in which 150 g of uncooked watercress were consumed. The percentage of urinary ITC conjugates excreted in this study ranged from 17.2 to 77.7% of the total ingested ITCs. These results indicate that glucosinolates are converted to ITCs in humans after ingestion of cooked watercress, in which the myrosinase has been completely inactivated. The extent of conversion, however, is considerably less than that after ingesting uncooked vegetables. Furthermore, upon incubation of the cooked watercress juice with fresh human feces under anaerobic conditions, approximately 18% of glucosinolates was hydrolyzed to ITCs in 2 h. These results suggest that the microflora in the intestinal tract are a likely source for the hydrolysis of glucosinolates to ITCs in humans. (+info)
An expressional system of human cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 gene transcription.
AIM: To explore an expressional system of human cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 (CYP1A1) gene transcription. METHODS: The plasmid pMC 6.3 K containing human CYP1A1 promoter was transiently transfected into Hep G2 cells. The expression of chloramphenical acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene was detected by ELISA. RESULTS: Both the CAT expression and CYP1A1 activity increased with the concentrations of beta-naphthoflavone from 2.5 to 10 mumol.L-1. At 10 mumol.L-1 of beta-naphthoflavone, the levels of CAT and CYP1A1 were 94-fold and 2.8-fold those of the corresponding control, respectively. Using this method, the study of 8 glucosinolates with various side chains on the induction of CYP1A1 gene transcription showed that none of the parent glucosinolates increased CAT expression, whereas the breakdown products of indol-3-yl-methyl glucosinolate (glucobrassicin), rather than indole-3-carbinol, increased the CAT expression. CONCLUSION: The CYP1A1 gene transcriptional system was more reliable and sensitive. (+info)
Glucosinolate genetics and the attraction of the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae to Brassica.
The control of insect pests using parasitoids and carnivores has been successfully applied in protected cropping systems, orchards and forestry. Their success in annual field crops has been more limited due largely to the difficulties of attracting and maintaining a sufficient density of parasitoids in the crop before the levls of the insect herbivores become economically damaging. Parasitoids are known to be attracted to host-plant volatiles; thus, manipulating the host-plant chemistry may provide a means of enhancing the attraction of parasitoids to their prey. In this study we describe the differential attraction of the braconid wasp Diaeretiella rapae to two near-isogenic lines of Brassica oleracea which differ in a gene which alters the chemical structure of the isothiocyanates which are emitted following tissue damage. We demonstrate that, by enhancing the production of but-3-enyl isothiocyanate in B. oleracea and Brassica napus (oilseed rape), we can increase the attraction of D. rapae to these plants under standard field conditions. (+info)
Purification and characterisation of epithiospecifier protein from Brassica napus: enzymic intramolecular sulphur addition within alkenyl thiohydroximates derived from alkenyl glucosinolate hydrolysis.
Epithiospecifier protein (ESP), a ferrous ion dependent protein, has a potential role in regulating the release of elemental sulphur, nitriles, isothiocyanates and cyanoepithioalkanes from glucosinolates. Two classes of ESP polypeptides were purified with molecular masses of 39 and 35 kDa, and we show that the previously reported instability was conditionally dependent. The 39 kDa polypeptide was made up of two distinct isozymes (5.00, 5.14) whilst several were present for the 35 kDa form of ESP (5.40-5.66). An anti-ESP antibody reacted with both the 39 and 35 kDa ESP forms in Brassica napus and strongly with a polypeptide corresponding to the 35 kDa ESP form in Crambe abyssinica, but did not detect any ESP in Sinapis alba or Raphanus sativus. A cytochrome P-450 mediated iron dependent epoxidation type mechanism is suggested for ESP. (+info)
Characterization of glucosinolate uptake by leaf protoplasts of Brassica napus.
The uptake of radiolabeled p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (p-OHBG) by protoplasts isolated from leaves of Brassica napus was detected using silicone oil filtration technique. The uptake was pH-dependent with higher uptake rates at acidic pH. Imposition of a pH gradient (internal alkaline) across the plasma membrane resulted in a rapid uptake of p-OHBG, which was inhibited in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, indicating that the uptake is dependent on a proton motive force. Dissipation of the internal positive membrane potential generated a small influx as compared with that seen for pH gradient (DeltapH). Kinetic studies demonstrated the presence of two uptake systems, a saturable and a linear component. The saturable kinetics indicated carrier-mediated translocation with a K(m) of 1.0 mm and a V(max) of 28.7 nmol/microl/h. The linear component had very low substrate affinity. The carrier-mediated transport had a temperature coefficient (Q(10)) of 1.8 +/- 0.2 in the temperature range from 4-30 degrees C. The uptake was against a concentration gradient and was sensitive to protonophores, uncouplers, H(+)-ATPase inhibitors, and the sulfhydryl group modifier p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid. The carrier-mediated uptake system had high specificity for glucosinolates because glucosinolate degradation products, amino acids, sugars, or glutathione conjugates did not compete for p-OHBG uptake. Glucosinolates with different side chains were equally good competitors of p-OHBG uptake, which indicates that the uptake system has low specificity for the glucosinolate side chains. Our data provide the first evidence of an active transport of glucosinolates by a proton-coupled symporter in the plasma membrane of rape leaves. (+info)
A glucosinolate mutant of Arabidopsis is thermosensitive and defective in cytosolic Hsp90 expression after heat stress.
The TU8 mutant of Arabidopsis previously described to be deficient in glucosinolate metabolism and pathogen-induced auxin accumulation was found to be remarkably less tolerant upon exposure to elevated temperatures than wild-type plants. Although moderately increased temperature only affected shoot growth, exposure to severe heat stress led to a dramatic decay of mutant plants. By contrast, wild-type seedlings showed little or no damage under the same conditions. Analysis of different heat stress proteins (Hsps) in TU8 seedlings revealed that only expression of cytoplasmic Hsp90 was affected in these plants. Although Hsp90 was present under control conditions, its level declined in mutant plants at elevated temperatures. Northern-blot analysis indicated that the decrease in Hsp90 protein was accompanied with a reduction of hsp90 transcript levels. Transient expression of Hsp90 in mutant protoplasts increased their survival rate at higher temperatures to near equivalent that of wild-type protoplasts. These data suggest that the reduced level of Hsp90 in TU8 mutants may be the primary cause for the observed reduction in thermostability. (+info)
Cytochrome P450 CYP79B2 from Arabidopsis catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxime, a precursor of indole glucosinolates and indole-3-acetic acid.
Glucosinolates are natural plant products known as flavor compounds, cancer-preventing agents, and biopesticides. We report cloning and characterization of the cytochrome P450 CYP79B2 from Arabidopsis. Heterologous expression of CYP79B2 in Escherichia coli shows that CYP79B2 catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxime. Recombinant CYP79B2 has a K(m) of 21 microm and a V(max) of 7.78 nmol/h/ml culture. Inhibitor studies show that CYP79B2 is different from a previously described enzyme activity that converts tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxime (Ludwig-Muller, J. , and Hilgenberg, W. (1990) Phytochemistry, 29, 1397-1400). CYP79B2 is wound-inducible and expressed in leaves, stem, flowers, and roots, with the highest expression in roots. Arabidopsis overexpressing CYP79B2 has increased levels of indole glucosinolates, which strongly indicates that CYP79B2 is involved in indole glucosinolate biosynthesis. Our data show that oxime production by CYP79s is not restricted to those amino acids that are precursors for cyanogenic glucosides. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that indole glucosinolates have evolved from cyanogenesis. Indole-3-acetaldoxime is a precursor of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid, which suggests that CYP79B2 might function in biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. Identification of CYP79B2 provides an important tool for modification of the indole glucosinolate content to improve nutritional value and pest resistance. (+info)
High resolution X-ray crystallography shows that ascorbate is a cofactor for myrosinase and substitutes for the function of the catalytic base.
Myrosinase, an S-glycosidase, hydrolyzes plant anionic 1-thio-beta-d-glucosides (glucosinolates) considered part of the plant defense system. Although O-glycosidases are ubiquitous, myrosinase is the only known S-glycosidase. Its active site is very similar to that of retaining O-glycosidases, but one of the catalytic residues in O-glycosidases, a carboxylate residue functioning as the general base, is replaced by a glutamine residue. Myrosinase is strongly activated by ascorbic acid. Several binary and ternary complexes of myrosinase with different transition state analogues and ascorbic acid have been analyzed at high resolution by x-ray crystallography along with a 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-glucosyl enzyme intermediate. One of the inhibitors, d-gluconhydroximo-1,5-lactam, binds simultaneously with a sulfate ion to form a mimic of the enzyme-substrate complex. Ascorbate binds to a site distinct from the glucose binding site but overlapping with the aglycon binding site, suggesting that activation occurs at the second step of catalysis, i.e. hydrolysis of the glycosyl enzyme. A water molecule is placed perfectly for activation by ascorbate and for nucleophilic attack on the covalently trapped 2-fluoro-glucosyl-moiety. Activation of the hydrolysis of the glucosyl enzyme intermediate is further evidenced by the observation that ascorbate enhances the rate of reactivation of the 2-fluoro-glycosyl enzyme, leading to the conclusion that ascorbic acid substitutes for the catalytic base in myrosinase. (+info)