(1/551) Kinetic study on the dimer-tetramer interconversion of glycogen phosphorylase a.
Kinetic theory of dissociating enzyme systems has been applied to a study of the dimer-tetramer interconversion of glycogen phosphorylase a. All kinetic constants for the dissociating-associating reaction of phosphorylase a have been determined. The results indicate that (a) the presence of glucose-1-phosphate has no influence on either the rate of dissociation or the rate of association, and hence does not shift the dimer-tetramer equilibrium of phosphorylase a; (b) the binding og glycogen to the enzyme decreases the association rate of the dimer to form the tetramer, but has no effect on the dissociation rate of the tetramer; (c) both the dimeric and tetrameric form of phosphorylase a can bind glycogen, but the tetrameric form has a lower affinity for glycogen and is catalytically inactive. (+info)
(2/551) Quantitative aspects of relationship between glucose 6-phosphate transport and hydrolysis for liver microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase system. Selective thermal inactivation of catalytic component in situ at acid pH.
Studies of the thermal stability of rat liver glucose-6-phosphatase (EC 188.8.131.52) were carried out to further elevate the proposal that the enzymic activity is the result of the coupling of a glucose-6-P-specific translocase and a nonspecific phosphohydrolase-phosphotransferase. Inactivation was observed when micorsomes were incubated at mild temperatures between pH 6.2 and 5.6. The rate of inactivation increased either with increasing hydrogen ion concentration or temperature. However, no inactivation was seen below 15 degrees in media as low as pH 5 or at neutral pH up to 37 degrees. The thermal stability of the enzyme may be controlled by the physical state of the membrane lipids and the degree of protonation of specific residues in the enzyme protein. Microsomes were exposed to inactivating conditions, and kinetic analyses were made of the glucose-6-P phosphohydrolase activities before and after supplementation to 0.4% sodium taurocholate. The results support the postulate and the kinetic characteristics of a given preparation of intact microsomes are determined by the relative capacities of the transport and catalytic components. Before detergent treatment, inactivation (i.e. a decrease in Vmax) was accompanied by a decrease in Km and a reduction in the fraction of latent activity, whereas only Vmax was depressed in disrupted preparations. The possibility that the inactivating treatments caused concurrent disruption of the microsomal membrane was ruled out. It is concluded that exposures to mild heat in acidic media selectively inactivate the catalytic component of the glucose-6-phosphatase system while preserving an intact permeability barrier and a functional glucose-6-P transport system. Analyses of kinetic data obtained in the present and earlier studies revealed several fundamental mathematical relationships among the kinetic constants describing the glucose-6-P phosphohydrolase activities of intact (i.e. the "system") and disrupted microsomes (i.e. the catalytic component). The quantitative relationships appear to provide a means to calculate a velocity constant (VT) and a half-saturation constant (KT) for glucose-6-P influx. The well documented, differential responses of the rat liver glucose-6-phosphatase system induced by starvation, experimental diabetes, or cortisol administration were analyzed in terms of these relationships. The possible influences of cisternal inorganic phosphate on the apparent kinetic constants of the intact system are discussed. (+info)
(3/551) Maltose metabolism in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus litoralis: purification and characterization of key enzymes.
Maltose metabolism was investigated in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus litoralis. Maltose was degraded by the concerted action of 4-alpha-glucanotransferase and maltodextrin phosphorylase (MalP). The first enzyme produced glucose and a series of maltodextrins that could be acted upon by MalP when the chain length of glucose residues was equal or higher than four, to produce glucose-1-phosphate. Phosphoglucomutase activity was also detected in T. litoralis cell extracts. Glucose derived from the action of 4-alpha-glucanotransferase was subsequently metabolized via an Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The closely related organism Pyrococcus furiosus used a different metabolic strategy in which maltose was cleaved primarily by the action of an alpha-glucosidase, a p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG)-hydrolyzing enzyme, producing glucose from maltose. A PNPG-hydrolyzing activity was also detected in T. litoralis, but maltose was not a substrate for this enzyme. The two key enzymes in the pathway for maltose catabolism in T. litoralis were purified to homogeneity and characterized; they were constitutively synthesized, although phosphorylase expression was twofold induced by maltodextrins or maltose. The gene encoding MalP was obtained by complementation in Escherichia coli and sequenced (calculated molecular mass, 96,622 Da). The enzyme purified from the organism had a specific activity for maltoheptaose, at the temperature for maximal activity (98 degrees C), of 66 U/mg. A Km of 0.46 mM was determined with heptaose as the substrate at 60 degrees C. The deduced amino acid sequence had a high degree of identity with that of the putative enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (66%) and with sequences of the enzymes from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima (60%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (31%) but not with that of the enzyme from E. coli (13%). The consensus binding site for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is conserved in the T. litoralis enzyme. (+info)
(4/551) Glycosylation of hemoglobin in vitro: affinity labeling of hemoglobin by glucose-6-phosphate.
To determine the mechanism for the formation of hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) in vivo, we incubated human hemoglobin with glucose and metabolites of glucose. [14C]Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) reacted readily with deoxyhemoglobin, and formed a covalent linkage. The reaction rate was considerably reduced in the presence of carbon monoxide or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Purified G6P hemoglobin had a lowered oxygen affinity and decreased reactivity with 2,3-DPG compared to Hb A. G6P behaved as a 2,3-DPG analog and reacted specifically at the NH2-terminal amino group of the beta chain. In contrast, the interaction of hemoglobin with glucose was much slower, and was unaffected by carbon monoxide or 2,3-DPG. Neither glucose-1-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, nor fructose-1,6-diphosphate formed a reaction product with hemoglobin. G6P behaves as an affinity label with the phosphate group forming electrostatic bonds at the 2,3-DPG binding site and the aldehvde group reacting with the NH2-terminal amino group of the beta chain. Thus, G6P hemoglobin may be an intermediate in the conversion of Hb A to Hb A1c. (+info)
(5/551) Kinetic analysis of Clostridium cellulolyticum carbohydrate metabolism: importance of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate branch points for distribution of carbon fluxes inside and outside cells as revealed by steady-state continuous culture.
During the growth of Clostridium cellulolyticum in chemostat cultures with ammonia as the growth-limiting nutrient, as much as 30% of the original cellobiose consumed by C. cellulolyticum was converted to cellotriose, glycogen, and polysaccharides regardless of the specific growth rates. Whereas the specific consumption rate of cellobiose and of the carbon flux through glycolysis increased, the carbon flux through the phosphoglucomutase slowed. The limitation of the path through the phosphoglucomutase had a great effect on the accumulation of glucose 1-phosphate (G1P), the precursor of cellotriose, exopolysaccharides, and glycogen. The specific rates of biosynthesis of these compounds are important since as much as 16.7, 16.0, and 21.4% of the specific rate of cellobiose consumed by the cells could be converted to cellotriose, exopolysaccharides, and glycogen, respectively. With the increase of the carbon flux through glycolysis, the glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) pool decreased, whereas the G1P pool increased. Continuous culture experiments showed that glycogen biosynthesis was associated with rapid growth. The same result was obtained in batch culture, where glycogen biosynthesis reached a maximum during the exponential growth phase. Glycogen synthesis in C. cellulolyticum was also not subject to stimulation by nutrient limitation. Flux analyses demonstrate that G1P and G6P, connected by the phosphoglucomutase reaction, constitute important branch points for the distribution of carbon fluxes inside and outside cells. From this study it appears that the properties of the G1P-G6P branch points have been selected to control excretion of carbon surplus and to dissipate excess energy, whereas the pyruvate-acetyl coenzyme A branch points chiefly regulate the redox balance of the carbon catabolism as was shown previously (E. Guedon et al., J. Bacteriol. 181:3262-3269, 1999). (+info)
(6/551) Interconversion between multiple glucose 6-phosphate-dependent forms of glycogen synthase in intact adipose tissue.
We have tested the hypothesis that interconversion between multiple glucose-6-P-dependent forms of glycogen synthase helps regulate glycogen synthesis in adipose tissue. Our results indicate that interconversion of glycogen synthase in adipose tissue involves primarily dependent forms and that these interconversions were measured better by monitoring the activation constant (A0.5) for glucose-6-P than measuring the -: + glucose-6-P activity ratio. Insulin decreased and epinephrine increased the A0.5 for glucose-6-P without significant change in the activity ratio. Insulin consistently decreased the A0.5 in either the presence or absence of glucose, indicating that the insulin-promoted interconversion did not require increased hexose transport. Isoproterenol increased the A0.5 for glucose-6-P, while methoxamine was without effect, indicating beta receptors mediate adrenergic control of interconversion between glucose-6-P-dependent forms. The changes in the A0.5 produced by incubations with insulin or epinephrine were mutually reversible. We conclude that 1) glycogen synthesis in adipose tissue is catalyzed by multiple glucose-6-P-dependent forms of glycogen synthase, 2) hormones regulate glycogen metabolism by promoting reversible interconversions between these forms, and 3) there is no evidence that a glucose-6-P-independent form of glycogen synthase exists in intact adipose tissue. (+info)
(7/551) Adaptations of glycogen metabolism in rat epididymal adipose tissue during fasting and refeeding.
It is well documented that adipose tissue glycogen content decreases during fasting and increases above control during refeeding. We now present evidence that these fluctuations result from adaptations intrinsic to adipose tissue glycogen metabolism that persist in vitro: in response to insulin (1 milliunit/ml), [3H]glucose incorporation into rat fat pad glycogen was reduced to 10% of control after a 3-day fast; incorporation increased 6-fold over fed control on the 4th day of refeeding following a 3-day fast. We have characterized this adaptation with regard to alterations in glycogen synthase and phosphorylase activity. In addition, we found that incubation of fat pads from fasted rats with insulin (1 milliunit/ml) increased glucose-6-P content, indicating that glucose transport was not the rate-limiting step for glucose incorporation into glycogen in the presence of insulin. In contrast, feeding a fat-free diet resulted in dramatic increases in glycogen content of fat pads without a concomitant increase in glucose incorporation into glycogen in response to insulin (1 milliunit/ml). Thus, fasting and refeeding appeared to alter insulin action on adipose tissue glycogen metabolism more than this dietary manipulation. (+info)
(8/551) Glucocorticoid action on rat thymic lymphocytes. Experiments utilizing adenosine to support cellular metabolism lead to a reassessment of catabolic hormone actions.
Inhibition of glucose uptake has been proposed as a primary cause of many of the subsequent inhibitory effects of glucocorticoids. This hypothesis has been tested in experiments where adenosine is substituted for glucose. Like glucose, adenosine maximally supports glycolytic and oxidative ATP generation, and by its use the hormonal inhibition of glucose uptake is circumvented. With adenosine, inhibition by cortisol is seen at at least one other metabolic site, respiratory ATP synthesis. This action can be observed by hormone-induced increases in levels of lactate, pyruvate, and AMP that accompany a lowering of ATP. Evidence for this metabolic action is also seen when cells are provided with a limiting amount of glucose; despite inhibition of glucose uptake, a cortisol-induced increase in lactate accompanies the reduction in levels of ATP. Decreased respiratory ATP synthesis is also suggested by a hormonal reduction in the metabolism of labeled exogenous pyruvate to 14CO2. Several experimental approaches suggest that inhibition of oxidative ATP production, rather than of glucose uptake, is the event most responsible for glucocorticoid-induced changes in the balance of adenine nucleotides, which in turn contribute to effects on protein synthesis and uridine uptake. First, the characteristic inhibitory cortisol effects on adenine nucleotides and protein synthesis are undiminished when adenosine is substituted for glucose. Second, in adenosine-supported cells the onset of the hormone-induced increase in levels of lactate corresponds closely to the appearance of measurable reductions in ATP. In contrast, when cells are supported by glucose, the hormonal inhibition of glucose uptake is maximal by 30 to 35 min, nearly an hour before effects on levels of ATP are detectable. Third, when cells are made strongly dependent upon glucose for ATP production by deprivation of exogenous substrate and cortisol is added at 90 min, a characteristic inhibition of the uptake of glucose added 40 min later is seen; nevertheless, this is insufficient to prevent added glucose from immediately and fully restoring ATP, rates of protein synthesis, and uridine uptake. Inhibitory effects on ATP, protein synthesis, and uridine do appear after an additional hour or so, a time commensurate with the development of an inhibition of oxidative metabolism. Fourth, limiting added glucose can reduce uptake more than cortisol, without reducing levels of ATP. (+info)