Gilbert's syndrome and jaundice in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient neonates.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of the hyperbilirubinemia present in approximately 30% of neonates affected by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an unsolved problem. We evaluated the effect of Gilbert's syndrome, the most common defect of bilirubin conjugation, on the hyperbilirubinemia of these neonates. DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and two neonates affected by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were enrolled in this study: 56 had hyperbilirubinemia and 46 had normal bilirubin levels. The analysis of the A(TA)nTAA motif in the promoter region of the UGT1A gene was performed by means of PCR, followed by separation on 6% denaturing polycrylamide gel. RESULTS: The frequency of the three different genotypes of the A(TA)nTAA motif was similar in the study and control groups. Our results demonstrated no difference in the percentage of homozygotes for the UGT1A (TA)7 variant associated with Gilbert's syndrome. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that Gilbert's syndrome does not account for the hyperbilirubinemia occurring in some neonates with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Furthermore our results suggest that hemolysis is not the major event in the pathogenesis of hyperbilirubinemia in these patients. (+info)
Effect of vitamin K1 on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient neonatal erythrocytes in vitro.
AIM: To determine whether vitamin K1, which is routinely administered to neonates, could act as an exogenous oxidising agent and be partly responsible for haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphat-dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). METHODS: G-6-PD deficient (n = 7) and control (n = 10) umbilical cord blood red blood cells were incubated in vitro with a vitamin K1 preparation (Konakion). Two concentrations of Vitamin K1 were used, both higher than that of expected serum concentrations, following routine injection of 1 mg vitamin K1. Concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and methaemoglobin, indicators of oxidative red blood cell damage, were determined before and after incubation, and the mean percentage change from baseline calculated. RESULTS: Values (mean (SD)) for GSH, at baseline, and after incubation with vitamin K1 at concentrations of 44 and 444 microM, respectively, and percentage change from baseline (mean (SD)) were 1.97 + 0.31 mumol/g haemoglobin, 1.89 +/- 0.44 mumol/g (-4.3 +/- 13.1%), and 1.69 +/- 0.41 mumol/g (-14.5 +/- 9.3%) for the G-6-PD deficient red blood cells, and 2.27 +/- 0.31 mumol/g haemoglobin, 2.09 +/- 0.56 mumol/g (-7.2 +/- 23.2%), and 2.12 +/- 0.38 mumol/g (-6.0 + 14.1%) for the control cells. For methaemoglobin (percentage of total haemoglobin), the corresponding values were 2.01 +/- 0.53%, 1.93 +/- 0.37% (-0.6 +/- 17.4%) and 2.06 +/- 0.43% (5.7 +/- 14.2%) for the G-6-PD deficient red blood cells, and 1.56 +/- 0.74%, 1.70 +/- 0.78% (12.7 +/- 21.9%), and 1.78 +/- 0.71% (20.6 +/- 26.8%) for the control red blood cells. None of the corresponding percentage changes from baseline was significantly different when G-6-PD deficient and control red blood cells were compared. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that G-6-PD deficient red blood cells are not at increased risk of oxidative damage from vitamin K1. (+info)
Detection of the most common G6PD gene mutations in Chinese using amplification refractory mutation system.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the most common human enzymopathy. To date more than 122 mutations in the G6PD gene have been discovered, among which 12 point mutations are found in the Chinese. The 2 most common mutations, G1388A and G1376T, account for more than 50% of mutations representing various regions and ethnic groups in China. Setting up a simple and accurate method for detecting these mutations is not only useful for studying the frequency of the G6PD genotypes, but also for finding new mutations. The purpose of this study was to find a simple, inexpensive and accurate method for detecting these common mutations. The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) method was used in this study. Samples from 28 G6PD-deficient males were investigated. The natural and mismatched amplification and restriction enzyme digestion method was used as a standard method to evaluate the nature of the point mutations. Sixteen cases were found carrying the G1388A mutation and 12 the G1376T mutation. Fourteen cases of G1388A and 10 cases of G1376T were confirmed by ARMS. Four cases were not in concordance with the results obtained by the mismatched amplification-restriction enzyme digestion. These 4 cases were then judged by direct PCR sequencing at exon 12. The DNA sequencing data supported the results obtained by ARMS. Thus we concluded that the ARMS is a rapid, simple, inexpensive and accurate method for detecting the most common G6PD gene mutations among the Chinese. (+info)
Serum transferrin receptor levels are increased in asymptomatic and mild Plasmodium falciparum-infection.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentration in an individual reflects the extent of erythropoietic activity and is considered a useful marker of iron deficiency independent of concurrent inflammation or infection. However, data on the impact of malaria on this parameter are ambiguous. We have examined potential associations of asymptomatic and mild Plasmodium falciparum-infections and of several erythrocyte variants with sTfR values in South West Nigeria. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study among 161 non-hospitalized children, sTfR concentrations and P. falciparum parasitemia were assessed. In addition, hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin values, Hb-types, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)deficiency and a-globin genotypes were determined and the effects of these factors on sTfR levels were analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistical methods. RESULTS: P. falciparum-infection was present in 77% of the children. Mean sTfR levels were higher in infected than in non-infected children (geometric mean, 3.68, 95% confidence interval [3.5-3.9] vs. 2.99 [2.7-3.3] mg/L; p = 0.0009). There was a significant trend for higher sTfR values with increasing parasite density. sTfR values decreased continuously with age. Hb-types, G6PD-, and a-globin genotypes did not correlate with sTfR levels. In the multivariate analysis, age, Hb and log ferritin values, and parasite density of P. falciparum were independently associated with log sTfR values. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: sTfR concentrations are increased in asymptomatic and mild P. falciparum-infections suggesting adequate bone marrow response in this condition. The diagnostic value of sTfR levels for iron deficiency may be impaired in areas where stable malaria occurs. (+info)
Identification of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in a population with a high frequency of thalassemia.
High frequencies of both thalassemia trait (5.2%) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency for only males (1.3%) have been observed in the Calabrian population. The G6PD activity measurement was carried out on 1239 samples of whole blood from Calabrian subjects of both sexes (age range 10-55) by a differential pH-metry technique which was quite suitable to determine the G6PD deficiency in mass screenings. The analyzed subjects showed: only the thalassemia trait; or only the G6PD deficiency; or only the total iron serum deficiency; or G6PD deficiency associated with the thalassemia trait or with the total iron serum deficiency. The G6PD heterozygous subjects have an enzymatic activity which is masked by both the thalassemia trait and the total iron serum deficiency. In a population showing high frequencies of both thalassemia trait and G6PD deficiency, the comparison of G6PD activity of heterozygous subjects also affected with the thalassemia trait is more reliable if referred to the enzymatic activity of the carriers of the latter inherited anomaly rather than to G6PD activity of normal subjects. (+info)
Factors influencing resistance to reinfection with Plasmodium falciparum.
A treatment-reinfection study design was used to investigate the relationships between host immunologic and/or genetic factors and resistance to reinfection with Plasmodium falciparum. Sixty-one children in Gabon were enrolled in a cross-sectional study to measure the prevalence of each human plasmodial species. All were given amodiaquine for radical cure of parasites, and 40 were subsequently followed-up for 30 weeks. Successive blood smears were examined to measure the delay of reappearance in blood of asexual stages of P. falciparum parasites. Presence of infection during the cross-sectional survey was associated with male sex, non-deficient glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, plasma interleukin-10 level, and anti-LSA-Rep antibody concentration. Resistance to reinfection was related to the presence of anti-LSA-J antibodies, and the absence of anti-LSA-Rep antibodies. Moreover, P. malariae-infected subjects were usually co-infected with P. falciparum, and were also more rapidly reinfected with P. falciparum after treatment, compared with those without P. malariae infection. (+info)
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Kuwait, Syria, Egypt, Iran, Jordan and Lebanon.
A total of 3,501 male subjects from six Arab countries living in Kuwait were investigated for quantitative and phenotypic distribution of red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). The ethnic origins of those investigated were Kuwait, Egypt, Iran, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. The distribution of G6PD deficiency among the different ethnic groups varied widely, ranging from 1.00% for Egyptians to 11.55% for Iranians. The activity of the normal enzyme was remarkably similar, with values ranging from 6.1 +/- 0.8 to 6.5 +/- 1.1 IU/g Hb. A low frequency of the Gd(A) allele was found in two ethnic groups, Egyptians (0.019) and Iranians (0.014). Gd(A-) was present at the very low frequency of 0.006 in another two ethnic groups, Kuwaitis and Jordanians. (+info)
Structural defects underlying protein dysfunction in human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase A(-) deficiency.
The enzyme variant glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) A(-), which gives rise to human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, is a protein of markedly reduced structural stability. This variant differs from the normal enzyme, G6PD B, in two amino acid substitutions. A further nondeficient variant, G6PD A, bears only one of these two mutations and is structurally stable. In this study, the synergistic structural defect in recombinant G6PD A(-) was reflected by reduced unfolding enthalpy due to loss of beta-sheet and alpha-helix interactions where both mutations are found. This was accompanied by changes in inner spatial distances between residues in the coenzyme domain and the partial disruption of tertiary structure with no significant loss of secondary structure. However, the secondary structure of G6PD A(-) was qualitatively affected by an increase in beta-sheets substituting beta-turns related to the lower unfolding enthalpy. The structural changes observed did not affect the active site of the mutant proteins, since its spatial position was unmodified. The final result is a loss of folding determinants leading to a protein with decreased intracellular stability. This is suggested as the cause of the enzyme deficiency in the red blood cell, which is unable to perform de novo protein synthesis. (+info)