2,3 diphosphoglycerate in Parkinson's disease.
The red cell 2,3 DPG, the most important factor for oxygen delivery in the tissues, was found to be increased in Parkinsonism patients compared with controls. The aging process seems not to be a factor in the increased 2,3 DPG concentration. Other factors relevant to raised 2,3 DPG level such as physical activity, increased oxygen requirements, and metabolic changes are discussed. (+info)
A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers.
Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population. (+info)
Characterization of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat liver mitochondria.
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat liver mitochondria can be released by detergent. The released activity is separated by chromatography into two peaks. One peak has the kinetic behaviour and mobility similar to the soluble sex-linked enzyme, whereas the other peak is similar to the microsomal hexose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. There is no evidence for the existence of a new glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat liver mitochondria. (+info)
Nordihydroguairetic acid is a potent inhibitor of ferric-nitrilotriacetate-mediated hepatic and renal toxicity, and renal tumour promotion, in mice.
Ferric-nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a known renal carcinogen. In the present study, we report the effect of a potent lignin-derived herbal antioxidant, nordihydroguairetic acid (NDGA), against Fe-NTA-mediated tissue toxicity. Fe-NTA (alone) treatment of mice enhances ornithine decarboxylase activity to 259% in liver and 341% in kidney and increases [3H]thymidine incorporation in DNA to 250% in liver and 324% in kidney compared with the corresponding saline-treated controls. The enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis showed a reduction to 138 and 123%, respectively, in liver at a higher dose of 2 mg NDGA/day/animal whereas in kidney the reduction was to 118 and 102%, respectively, compared with the corresponding saline-treated controls. In the Fe-NTA (alone)-treated group, a 12% renal tumour incidence was recorded whereas, in N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated and Fe-NTA-promoted animals, the percentage tumour incidence was increased to 68% as compared with untreated controls. No tumour incidence was recorded in the DEN-initiated, non-promoted group. The administration of NDGA, afforded >80% protection against DEN- and Fe-NTA-mediated renal tissue injury in vivo. Fe-NTA treatment also enhanced hepatic and renal microsomal lipid peroxidation to 170 and 205% of saline-treated controls, respectively, and hydrogen peroxide generation by >2.5-fold in both tissues accompanied by a 51 and 21% decrease in the level of glutathione and 35-48 and 35-50% decrease in the activities of glutathione-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney, respectively. These changes were reversed significantly in animals receiving a pre-treatment of NDGA. Our data show that NDGA can abrogate the toxic and tumour-promoting effects of Fe-NTA in liver and kidney of mice and can serve as a potent chemopreventive agent to suppress oxidant-induced tissue injury and tumorigenesis. (+info)
Photosystem II regulation of macromolecule synthesis in the blue-green alga Aphanocapsa 6714.
Polymers synthesized by heterotrophically growing (glucose as carbon source) cultures of Aphanocapsa 6714 were compared with polymers synthesized in photosynthetically grown cultures. Loss of photosystem II by dark incubation, or inhibition of light-grown cells with the photosystem II-specific inhibitor dichlorophenylmethylurea, caused an 80 to 90% reduction in the rate of lipid and total ribonucleic acid synthesis, and more than a 90% reduction in the rate of protein synthesis. In contrast, glycogen synthesis was reduced only about 50% in dark cells and less than 30% in dichlorphenylmethylurea-inhibited cells. After longer heterotrophic growth, glycogen became the major component, whereas in photosynthetically grown cultures protein was the major constituent. 14C (from 14CO2 and/or [14C]glucose) assimilated into protein by heterotrophically grown cells was found in amino acids in nearly the same proportions as in photosynthetically grown cells. Thus, routes of biosynthesis available to autotropic cells were also available to heterotrophic cultures, but the supply of carbon precursors to those pathways was greatly reduced. The limited biosynthesis in heterotrophic cells was not due to a limitation for cellular energy. The adenylates were maintained at nearly the same concentrations (and hence the energy charge also) as in photosynthetic cells. The concentration of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate was higher in heterotrophic (dark) cells than in photosynthetic cells. From rates of CO2 fixation and/or glycogen biosynthesis it was determined that stationary-phase cells expended approximately 835, 165, and less than 42 nmol of adenosine 5'-triphosphate per mg (dry weight) of algae per 30 min during photosynthetic, photoheterotrophic, and chemoheterotrophic metabolism, respectively. Analysis of the soluble metabolite pools in dark heterotrophic cultures by double-labeling experiments revealed rapid equilibration of 14C through the monophosphate pools, but much slower movement of label into the diphosphate pools of fructose-1,6-diphosphate and sedoheptulose-1,7-diphosphate. Carbon did flow into 3-phosphoglycerate in the dark; however, the initial rate was low and the concentration of this metabolite soon fell to an undetectable level. In photosynthetic cells, 14C quickly equilibrated throughout all the intermediates of the reductive pentose cycle, in particular, into 3-phosphoglycerate. Analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in cell extracts showed that the enzyme was very sensitive to product inhibition by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. (+info)
Importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in cell death.
The intracellular redox potential plays an important role in cell survival. The principal intracellular reductant NADPH is mainly produced by the pentose phosphate pathway by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the rate-limiting enzyme, and by 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Considering the importance of NADPH, we hypothesized that G6PDH plays a critical role in cell death. Our results show that 1) G6PDH inhibitors potentiated H2O2-induced cell death; 2) overexpression of G6PDH increased resistance to H2O2-induced cell death; 3) serum deprivation, a stimulator of cell death, was associated with decreased G6PDH activity and resulted in elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS); 4) additions of substrates for G6PDH to serum-deprived cells almost completely abrogated the serum deprivation-induced rise in ROS; 5) consequences of G6PDH inhibition included a significant increase in apoptosis, loss of protein thiols, and degradation of G6PDH; and 6) G6PDH inhibition caused changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation that were similar to the changes seen with H2O2. We conclude that G6PDH plays a critical role in cell death by affecting the redox potential. (+info)
Field trials of a rapid test for G6PD deficiency in combination with a rapid diagnosis of malaria.
A rapid single-step screening method for detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6 PD) deficiency was evaluated on Halmahera Island, Maluku Province, Indonesia, and in Shan and Mon States, Myanmar, in combination with a rapid diagnosis of malaria by an acridine orange staining method. Severe deficiency was detected by the rapid test in 45 of 1126 volunteers in Indonesia and 54 of 1079 in Myanmar, but it was difficult to distinguish blood samples with mild deficiency from those with normal activity. 89 of 99 severely deficient cases were later confirmed by formazan ring method in the laboratory, but 5 with mild and 5 with no deficiency were misdiagnosed as severe. Of the samples diagnosed as mild and no deficiency on-site, none was found to be severely deficient by the formazan method. Malaria patients were simultaenously++ detected on-site in 273 samples on Halmahera island and 277 samples from Shan and Mon States. In Mon State, primaquine was prescribed safely to G6 PD-normal malaria patients infected with Plasmodium vivax and/or gametocytes of P. falciparum. The new rapid test for G6 PD deficiency may be useful for detecting severe cases under field conditions, and both rapid tests combined are can be useful in malaria-endemic areas, facilitating early diagnosis, prompt and radical treatment of malaria and suppression of malaria transmission. (+info)
Detection of the most common G6PD gene mutations in Chinese using amplification refractory mutation system.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the most common human enzymopathy. To date more than 122 mutations in the G6PD gene have been discovered, among which 12 point mutations are found in the Chinese. The 2 most common mutations, G1388A and G1376T, account for more than 50% of mutations representing various regions and ethnic groups in China. Setting up a simple and accurate method for detecting these mutations is not only useful for studying the frequency of the G6PD genotypes, but also for finding new mutations. The purpose of this study was to find a simple, inexpensive and accurate method for detecting these common mutations. The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) method was used in this study. Samples from 28 G6PD-deficient males were investigated. The natural and mismatched amplification and restriction enzyme digestion method was used as a standard method to evaluate the nature of the point mutations. Sixteen cases were found carrying the G1388A mutation and 12 the G1376T mutation. Fourteen cases of G1388A and 10 cases of G1376T were confirmed by ARMS. Four cases were not in concordance with the results obtained by the mismatched amplification-restriction enzyme digestion. These 4 cases were then judged by direct PCR sequencing at exon 12. The DNA sequencing data supported the results obtained by ARMS. Thus we concluded that the ARMS is a rapid, simple, inexpensive and accurate method for detecting the most common G6PD gene mutations among the Chinese. (+info)