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(1/1573) Prolonged elevation of plasma free fatty acids desensitizes the insulin secretory response to glucose in vivo in rats.

Prolonged exposure of pancreatic islets to free fatty acids (FFAs) inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in vitro. However, FFA inhibition of GSIS has not been clearly demonstrated in vivo. We examined the in vivo effect of prolonged elevation of plasma FFAs on GSIS using a two-step hyperglycemic clamp in rats treated with a 48-h intravenous infusion of either 20% Intralipid plus heparin (INT) (5 microl/min plus heparin, 0.1 U/min; n = 8), oleate (OLE) (1.3 microEq/min; n = 6), saline (SAL) (n = 6), or bovine serum albumin (BSA) (vehicle for OLE; n = 5). Because there was no difference in any of the parameters between BSA and SAL rats, these groups were combined as control rats (CONT) (n = 11). At the end of the 48-h OLE/INT/CONT infusions, after an overnight fast, plasma glucose was clamped for 2 h at 13 mmol/l and for another 2 h at 22 mmol/l. Preclamp plasma FFAs were elevated twofold (P < 0.01) versus CONT with both INT and OLE (NS, INT vs. OLE). Preclamp glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were higher in INT than in CONT rats (P < 0.05), suggesting insulin resistance, but they were not different in OLE and CONT rats. The insulin and C-peptide responses to the rise in plasma glucose from basal to 13 mmol/l were lower in OLE (336 +/- 72 pmol/l and 1.2 +/- 0.1 nmol/l, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) than in CONT (552 +/- 54 and 1.9 +/- 0.1) rats, but they were not different between CONT and INT rats (648 +/- 150 and 2.0 +/- 0.4). The insulin and C-peptide responses to the rise in plasma glucose from 13 to 22 mmol/l were lower in both INT (1,188 +/- 204 pmol/l and 3.0 +/- 0.3 nmol/l, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) and OLE (432 +/- 60 and 1.7 +/- 0.2, P < 0.001 vs. CONT or INT) rats than in CONT rats (1,662 +/- 174 and 5.0 +/- 0.6). In summary, 1) both INT and OLE decreased GSIS in vivo in rats, and 2) the impairing effect of INT on GSIS was less than that of OLE, which might be due to the different type of fatty acid (mostly polyunsaturated in INT versus monounsaturated as OLE) and/or to differential effects of INT and OLE on insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, prolonged elevation of plasma FFAs can desensitize the insulin secretory response to glucose in vivo, thus inducing a beta-cell defect that is similar to that found in type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

(2/1573) Acute vasoconstriction-induced insulin resistance in rat muscle in vivo.

Insulin-mediated changes in blood flow are associated with altered blood flow distribution and increased capillary recruitment in skeletal muscle. Studies in perfused rat hindlimb have shown that muscle metabolism can be regulated by vasoactive agents that control blood flow distribution within the hindlimb. In the present study, the effects of a vasoconstrictive agent that has no direct effect on skeletal muscle metabolism but that alters perfusion distribution in rat hindlimb was investigated in vivo to determine its effects on insulin-mediated vascular action and glucose uptake. We measured the effects of alpha-methylserotonin (alpha-met5HT) on mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, femoral blood flow, hindlimb vascular resistance, and glucose uptake in control and euglycemic insulin-clamped (10 mU x min(-1) x kg(-1)) anesthetized rats. Blood flow distribution within the hindlimb muscles was assessed by measuring the metabolism of 1-methylxanthine (1-MX), an exogenously added substrate for capillary xanthine oxidase. Alpha-met5HT (20 microg x min(-1) x kg(-1)) infusion alone increased mean arterial blood pressure by 25% and increased hindlimb vascular resistance but caused no change in femoral blood flow. These changes were associated with decreased hindlimb 1-MX metabolism indicating less capillary flow. Insulin infusion caused decreased hindlimb vascular resistance that was associated with increased femoral blood flow and 1-MX metabolism. Treatment with alpha-met5HT infusion commenced before insulin infusion prevented the increase in femoral blood flow and inhibited the stimulation of 1-MX metabolism. Alpha-met5HT infusion had no effect on hindlimb glucose uptake but markedly inhibited the insulin stimulation of glucose uptake (P < 0.05) and was associated with decreased glucose infusion rates to maintain euglycemia (P < 0.05). A significant correlation (P < 0.05) was observed between 1-MX metabolism and hindlimb glucose uptake but not between femoral blood flow and glucose uptake. The results indicate that in vivo, certain types of vasoconstriction in muscle such as elicited by 5HT2 agonists, which prevent normal insulin recruitment of capillary flow, cause impaired muscle glucose uptake. Moreover, if vasoconstriction of this kind results from stress-induced increase in sympathetic outflow, then this may provide a clue as to the link between hypertension and insulin resistance that is often observed in humans.  (+info)

(3/1573) Resistance to insulin's acute direct hepatic effect in suppressing steady-state glucose production in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

We and others have shown that insulin acutely suppresses glucose production in fasting nondiabetic humans and dogs, by both a direct hepatic effect and an indirect (extrahepatic) effect, and in diabetic dogs by an indirect effect alone. In type 2 diabetes, there is resistance to insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose production, but it has not previously been determined whether the resistance is primarily at the level of the hepatocyte or the peripheral tissues. To determine whether the diabetic state reduces the direct effect of insulin in humans, we studied nine patients with untreated type 2 diabetes who underwent three studies each, 4-6 weeks apart. 1) Portal study (POR): intravenous tolbutamide was infused for 3 h with calculation of pancreatic insulin secretion from peripheral plasma C-peptide. 2) Peripheral study (PER): equidose insulin was infused by peripheral vein. 3) Half-dose peripheral insulin study (1/2 PER): matched peripheral insulin levels with study 1. In all studies, glucose was clamped at euglycemia, glucose turnover was measured with the constant specific activity method, and 3-[3H]glucose was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Peripheral insulin was lower in POR versus PER but slightly higher in POR versus 1/2 PER, although most of the difference could be accounted for by higher proinsulin levels in POR (stimulated by tolbutamide). Calculated portal insulin was approximately 1.3-fold higher in POR versus PER and approximately 2.2-fold higher in POR versus 1/2 PER. In the final 30 min of the clamp, glucose production reached a lower steady-state level in PER than in POR (4.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.5 pmol(-1) x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05), despite the higher hepatic insulin level in POR. In contrast with our studies in nondiabetic individuals, glucose production was not more suppressed at steady state in POR versus 1/2 PER (5.3 +/- 0.4 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)), despite much higher hepatic insulin levels in POR. In conclusion, this is the first study in patients with type 2 diabetes to characterize insulin resistance to the acute direct suppressive effect of insulin on hepatic glucose production.  (+info)

(4/1573) Effects of fatty acids and ketone bodies on basal insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes.

The objective of this study was to assess the role of free fatty acids (FFAs) as insulin secretagogues in patients with type 2 diabetes. To this end, basal insulin secretion rates (ISR) in response to acute increases in plasma FFAs were evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes and in age- and weight-matched nondiabetic control subjects during 1) intravenous infusion of lipid plus heparin (L/H), which stimulated intravascular lipolysis, and 2) the FFA rebound, which followed lowering of plasma FFAs with nicotinic acid (NA) and was a consequence of increased lipolysis from the subject's own adipose tissue. At comparable euglycemia, diabetic patients had similar ISR but higher plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) levels during L/H infusion and higher plasma FFA and beta-OHB levels during the FFA rebound than nondiabetic control subjects. Correlating ISR with plasma FFA plus beta-OHB levels showed that in response to the same changes in FFA plus beta-OHB levels, diabetic patients secreted approximately 30% less insulin than nondiabetic control subjects. In addition, twice as much insulin was secreted during L/H infusion as during the FFA rebound in response to the same FFA/beta-OHB stimulation by both diabetic patients and control subjects. Glycerol, which was present in the infused lipid (272 mmol/l) did not affect ISR. We concluded that 1) assessment of FFA effects on ISR requires consideration of effects on ISR by ketone bodies; 2) ISR responses to FFA/beta-OHB were defective in patients with type 2 diabetes (partial beta-cell lipid blindness), but this defect was compensated by elevated plasma levels of FFAs and ketone bodies; and 3) approximately two times more insulin was released per unit change in plasma FFA plus beta-OHB during L/H infusion than during the FFA rebound after NA. The reason for this remains to be explored.  (+info)

(5/1573) Serum leptin concentrations and their relation to metabolic abnormalities in human sepsis.

Circulating leptin concentrations are raised in animal models of inflammation and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sepsis on serum leptin concentration in humans and to examine the relationship between leptin and the metabolic consequences of sepsis. Resting energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, and fasting serum leptin, plasma insulin, and cortisol concentrations were measured in 20 subjects with intra-abdominal sepsis and 20 healthy control subjects, before and during a 2-h period of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Fasting serum leptin concentrations were similar in septic and control subjects. In simple regression analysis, serum leptin concentrations correlated significantly with percent body fat in both septic patients (r = 0. 64, P < 0.005) and healthy subjects (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001). Multiple regression analyses additionally indicated that percent body fat, fasting plasma insulin, and plasma cortisol, but not sepsis, were significant and independent determinants of serum leptin concentration. No relationship between leptin and resting energy expenditure or insulin sensitivity was identifiable. A major metabolic role for leptin in human sepsis therefore appears unlikely.  (+info)

(6/1573) Differential effect of transdermal estrogen plus progestagen replacement therapy on insulin metabolism in postmenopausal women: relation to their insulinemic secretion.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on glucose and insulin metabolism of transdermal estrogen patches before and after the addition of cyclic dydrogesterone in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: We studied 21 postmenopausal women seeking treatment for symptomatic menopause. All patients received transdermal 50 micrograms/day estradiol for 24 weeks. After 12 weeks of treatment, 10 mg/day dydrogesterone were added. METHODS: During both regimens, insulin and C-peptide plasma concentrations were evaluated after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); insulin sensitivity was evaluated by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. Insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT were expressed as area under the curve (AUC) and as incremental AUC; insulin sensitivity was expressed as mg/kg body weight. Fractional hepatic insulin extraction (FHIE) was estimated by the difference between the incremental AUC of the C-peptide and insulin divided by the incremental AUC of the C-peptide. Plasma hormone and lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Nine patients proved to be hyperinsulinemic and 12 were normoinsulinemic. Transdermal estrogen treatment significantly decreased the insulin AUC (P < 0.05) and the insulin incremental AUC in hyperinsulinemic patients; addition of dydrogesterone further decreased both the AUC and incremental AUC of insulin. Estrogen alone and combined with dydrogesterone evoked a significant increase in C-peptide AUC in hyperinsulinemic (79.2%) and normoinsulinemic (113%) patients. The treatment increased the values for FHIE and insulin sensitivity in all patients (P < 0.04) and in the hyperinsulinemic group (P < 0.01), whereas it did not affect such parameters in normoinsulinemic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Transdermal estrogen substitution alone and combined with cyclical dydrogesterone may ameliorate hyperinsulinemia in a selected population of postmenopausal women.  (+info)

(7/1573) Changes in luteinizing hormone and insulin secretion in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Uncertainties regarding the pathogenetic changes underlying the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine and metabolic features of PCOS patients in relation to luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Androgen assays, oral glucose tolerance tests, hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamps and gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) tests were performed in 100 patients. Sixty-six patients scheduled as hyperinsulinaemic and 34 as normoinsulinaemic showed similar concentrations of LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), LH/FSH ratio, and LH response to GnRH testing. Hyperinsulinaemic subjects showed higher body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance, testosterone and free androgen index levels compared with those of normoinsulinaemic subjects; when clustered in relation to their LH basal concentrations, the two groups obtained differed only in androstenedione concentrations. Considering both insulin and LH plasma concentrations, four groups were obtained. Hyperinsulinaemia and hyper-LH secretion were not related in 54% and coexisted in the same subjects in 26% of cases. Hyperinsulinaemia as well as hyper-LH secretion affected the expression of the syndrome; the insulinaemia was directly correlated with testosterone concentrations and all metabolic parameters that affected the free androgen index. The LH concentrations were related to androgen production and were independent of BMI and insulin concentrations. It is concluded that the degree of hormonal alteration is the final sum of such pathogenetic factors.  (+info)

(8/1573) Hyperlactatemia reduces muscle glucose uptake and GLUT-4 mRNA while increasing (E1alpha)PDH gene expression in rat.

An increased basal plasma lactate concentration is present in many physiological and pathological conditions, including obesity and diabetes. We previously demonstrated that acute lactate infusion in rats produced a decrease in overall glucose uptake. The present study was carried out to further investigate the effect of lactate on glucose transport and utilization in skeletal muscle. In chronically catheterized rats, a 24-h sodium lactate or bicarbonate infusion was performed. To study glucose uptake in muscle, a bolus of 2-deoxy-[3H]glucose was injected in basal condition and during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Our results show that hyperlactatemia decreased glucose uptake in muscles (i.e., red quadriceps; P < 0.05). Moreover in red muscles, both GLUT-4 mRNA (-30% in red quadriceps and -60% in soleus; P < 0.025) and protein (-40% in red quadriceps; P < 0.05) were decreased, whereas the (E1alpha)pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) mRNA was increased (+40% in red quadriceps; P < 0.001) in lactate-infused animals. PDH protein was also increased (4-fold in red gastrocnemius and 2-fold in red quadriceps). These results indicate that chronic hyperlactatemia reduces glucose uptake by affecting the expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism in muscle, suggesting a role for lactate in the development of insulin resistance.  (+info)