Preradiotherapy computed tomography as a predictor of local control in supraglottic carcinoma.
PURPOSE: To determine the utility of pretreatment computed tomography (CT) for predicting primary site control in patients with supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pretreatment CT studies in 63 patients were reviewed. Minimum length of follow-up was 2 years. Local recurrence and treatment complications resulting in permanent loss of laryngeal function were documented. Tumor volume was calculated using a computer digitizer, and pre-epiglottic space (PES) spread was estimated. The data were analyzed using a combination of Fisher's exact test, logistic regression modeling, and multivariate analyses. Five-year local control rates were calculated using the product-limit method. RESULTS: Local control rates were inversely and roughly linearly related to tumor volume, although there seemed to be a threshold volume at which primary site prognosis diminished. Local control was 89% in tumors less than 6 cm3 and 52% when volumes were > or =6 cm3 (P = .0012). The likelihood of maintaining laryngeal function also varied with tumor volume: 89% for tumors less than 6 cm3 and 40% for tumors > or =6 cm3 (P = .00004). Pre-epiglottic space involvement by tumor of > or =25% was associated with a reduced chance of saving the larynx (P = .0076). Multivariate analyses revealed that only tumor volume independently altered these end points. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment CT measurements of tumor volume permits stratification of patients with supraglottic SCC treated with RT alone (which allows preservation of laryngeal function) into groups in which local control is more likely and less likely. Pre-epiglottic space spread is not a contraindication to using RT as the primary treatment for supraglottic SCC. (+info)
Laryngeal movements during the respiratory cycle measured with an endoscopic imaging technique in the conscious horse at rest.
A video-laryngoscopic method, implemented with an algorithm for the correction of the deformation inherent in the endoscope optical system, has been used to measure the dorsoventral diameter (Drg) and the cross-sectional area (CSArg) of the rima glottidis in five healthy workhorses during conscious breathing at rest. Simultaneous recording of the respiratory airflow was also obtained in two horses. Drg measured 82.7 +/- 4.5 mm (mean +/- S.D.) independently of the respiratory phase, and did not differ from the measurement in post-mortem anatomical specimens of the same horses. CSArg ranged from 1130 +/- 117 mm2 (mean +/- S.D.) during the inspiratory phase to 640 +/- 242 mm2 during the expiratory phase; being always narrower than tracheal cross-sectional area, which was 1616 +/- 224 mm2, as determined from anatomical specimens. Both inspiratory and expiratory airflow waves displayed a biphasic pattern. Maximal laryngeal opening occurred in phase with the second inspiratory peak, while during expiration CSArg attained a minimum value during the first expiratory peak which was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than the area subsequently maintained during the rest of the expiratiory phase. These quantitative measurements of equine laryngeal movements substantiate the important role played by the larynx in regulating upper airway respiratory resistance and the expiratory airflow pattern at rest. (+info)
Efficiency of a new fiberoptic stylet scope in tracheal intubation.
BACKGROUND: Failed or difficult tracheal intubation is an important cause of morbidity and mortality during anesthesia. Although a number of fiberoptic devices are available to circumvent this problem, many do not allow manual control of the flexion of the tip and necessitate time-consuming preparation, special training, or the use of an external light source. To improve these limitations, the authors designed a new fiberoptic stylet scope (FSS) that has a simple form of a standard stylet with the fiberoptic view and maneuverability of its tip. This study was undertaken to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of the FSS in tracheal intubation. METHODS: Thirty-two patients undergoing general surgery participated in this study. The authors used a standard laryngoscope only to elevate the tongue, then tracheal intubation was attempted with the glottic opening being viewed only through the FSS. The success rate, time necessary for intubation, hemodynamics, and adverse effects were recorded. RESULTS: The success rate of tracheal intubation on the first attempt using the FSS was 94% (30 of 32 patients), and the remaining two patients were intubated successfully on the second attempt. The mean time necessary for the intubation procedure was 29+/-14 s in all patients (mean +/- SD). Changes in hemodynamics during intubation were well within acceptable ranges. There were no major adverse effects, but minor sore throat (28%) and minor hoarseness (25%) on the first postoperative day. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheal intubation using the FSS proved to be a simple and effective technique for airway management. (+info)
Left-molar approach improves the laryngeal view in patients with difficult laryngoscopy.
BACKGROUND: The molar approach of laryngoscopy is reported to improve glottic view in sporadic cases of difficult laryngoscopy. The authors studied the effect of molar approaches and optimal external laryngeal manipulation (OELM) using the Macintosh blade. METHODS: A series of 1,015 adult patients who underwent general anesthesia and tracheal intubation was studied. Laryngoscopy was carried out using a Macintosh no. 3 or 4 standard blade. Three consecutive trials of direct laryngoscopy using the midline and left- and right-molar approaches were carried out under full muscle relaxation with optimal head and neck positioning. The best glottic views were recorded for each approach with and without OELM. RESULTS: Difficult laryngoscopy with a midline approach accounted for 6.5% (66 cases) before OELM and 1.97% (20 cases) after OELM. A left-molar approach with OELM further reduced difficult laryngoscopy to seven cases (P < 0.001 vs. midline approach with OELM); a right-molar approach with OELM reduced difficult laryngoscopy to 18 cases (P = 0.48). CONCLUSIONS: The left-molar approach with OELM improves the laryngeal view in patients with difficult laryngoscopy. (+info)
Re-evaluation of appropriate size of the laryngeal mask airway.
We have assessed 32 males and 31 females in a randomized, crossover study to see if there was any difference in the correct positioning of the laryngeal mask, optimal ventilation (defined as no gas leak around the mask at an airway pressure of 18 cm H2O) and cuff visibility between sizes 4 and 5 masks in males and sizes 3 and 4 in females. The position of the mask in relation to the glottis was assessed using a fibreoptic bronchoscope. There was no significant difference in correct positioning between the two sizes in either sex. Gas leak was significantly less frequent for a larger than a smaller mask (P < 0.01 for both sexes), whereas the cuff was more often seen in the mouth with larger masks (P < 0.02 for males and P < 0.01 for females). Therefore, larger masks (size 4 in females and size 5 in males) provided a better seal than smaller sizes without worsening the relative position of the mask to the glottis; however, the larger mask came up within the mouth more often, which could interfere with tonsillectomy and could increase the risk of sore throat or lingual nerve damage. (+info)
Dynamic helical CT of T1 and T2 glottic carcinomas: predictive value for local control with radiation therapy.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tumor volume and cartilage invasion have been suggested as prognostic factors of glottic carcinomas following definitive radiation therapy. Radiologic examinations provide additional information regarding the deep extension of tumor. We determined whether dynamic helical CT can predict local control of early (T1 and T2 stage) glottic carcinomas treated with definitive radiation therapy. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with early glottic carcinoma evaluated on pretreatment dynamic helical CT were treated with definitive radiation therapy. Tumor detectability, maximum dimension, tumor volume, and involvement of anatomic subsites (anterior commissure, ventricle, subglottic region, and thyroid and arytenoid cartilages) were determined by consensus by three radiologists without previous knowledge of the clinical information. The CT findings were correlated with local control. RESULTS: The two-year local control rate was 76%; 91% for T1 and 60% for T2 lesions. Univariate analysis revealed clinical T stage, tumor detectability, maximum dimension, tumor volume, anterior commissure involvement, ventricle involvement, and thyroid cartilage involvement as significant prognostic factors. Thyroid cartilage involvement was an independent predictor by multivariate analysis. The lesions separate from the thyroid cartilage had a 95% probability of local control, whereas the lesions adjacent to the cartilage had only a 42% control rate. CONCLUSION: Dynamic helical CT provides prognostic information for the results of definitive radiation therapy. Patients with a tumor adjacent to the thyroid cartilage had an increased risk of local failure. (+info)
Contrast-enhanced conventional CT in patients after surgery for malignant tumors: evaluation of the optimal method of the administration of the contrast medium.
Patients after ablative surgery for malignant tumors require computed tomography (CT) examination of a wide area on the head and neck to follow-up for recurrence and lymph metastasis. The aim of this study was to determine a more effective method for the infusion of the contrast medium into post-operative patients undergoing conventional CT, based on the relationship between the method of administering the contrast medium and the contrast-enhancing effect in the internal jugular vein. First eleven images were selected from the existing contrast-enhanced and plain CT images in a manner such that the CT values of the internal jugular vein were distributed evenly in a range of 50-180. Seven experienced observers evaluated the contrast-enhancing effect of each image set at a window value of 40 and window widths of 120, 200, and 280. Secondly, the CT values of the right internal jugular vein were measured in a total of 10 CT images from the thyroid to maxillary sinus level from each of 60 post-operative patients. The injection needles and contrast-enhancing techniques used in the 60 patients were drip infusion using an 18G injection needle in 20, drip infusion using a 21G injection needle with bolus intravenous injection immediately before scanning in 20, and drip infusion using a 23G injection needle with bolus intravenous injection immediately before scanning in 20. A CT value of 100 or above, preferably 120 or above, in the internal jugular vein was needed for the contrast-enhancing effect of a CT image to be judged as clinically significant. Our results found that, when a conventional CT was used in patients after surgery for malignant tumors, drip infusion using a 21G or 23G injection needle should be combined with bolus injections immediately before the beginning of scanning, and at the glottis or submandibular gland level during the scanning. A sufficient contrast-enhancing effect can also be obtained by drip infusion using an 18G injection needle without bolus injection. (+info)
Supraglottic carcinoma: does preoperative radiotherapy reduce the incidence of cervical metastasis?
OBJECTIVE: To compare surgery (S) alone with combined radiotherapy and surgery (R + S) in the management of patients with supraglottic laryngeal cancer. METHODS: Between 1981 and 1994, patients were stratified according to stage and randomised to either surgery (S) or 4000cGy of radiotherapy and surgery. There were 102 patients in the S group and 99 in the R + S group who completed at least 3-year follow-up. RESULTS: Using Kaplan-Meier survival method showed no significant difference between the two groups. When the patients were grouped according to tumour stage, a significant reduction in the regional recurrence was noted in the R + S group for stage I-III disease (Cox multivariate analysis, P < 0.02). They had an increased relative risk of 1.8 (95% confidence 1.1-2.9) for neck recurrence. There was no significant difference in neck recurrence rates in the two groups for stage IV disease. When Cox proportional hazard model was used, only TNM stage (P < 0.02) and histological nodal status (positive lymph nodes, P < 0.01) were found to be independent risk factors for regional control. CONCLUSION: Preoperative radiotherapy can improve regional cervical control of stage I-III supraglottic cancer as compared with surgery alone. (+info)