(1/1661) Nitric oxide stimulates the stress-activated protein kinase p38 in rat renal mesangial cells.

Nitric oxide (NO) has gained increased attention as a diffusible universal messenger that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recently, we reported that exogenous NO is able to activate the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) cascade in mesangial cells. Here, we demonstrate that exposure of glomerular mesangial cells to compounds releasing NO, including spermine-NO and (Z)-1- (N-methyl-N-[6-(N-methylammoniohexyl)amino]diazen)-1-ium-1,2-diolate (MAHMA-NO), results in an activation of the stress-activated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) cascade as measured by the phosphorylation of the activator of transcription factor-2 (ATF2) in an immunocomplex kinase assay. Activation of the p38-MAPK cascade by a short stimulation (10 min) with the NO donor MAHMA-NO causes a large increase in ATF2 phosphorylation that is several times greater than that observed after stimulation with interleukin-1beta, a well-known activator of the p38-MAPK pathway. Time course studies reveal that MAHMA-NO causes rapid and maximal activation of p38-MAPK after 10 min of stimulation and that activation declines to basal levels within 60 min. The longer-lived NO donor spermine-NO causes a comparable rapid activation of the p38-MAPK pathway; however, the increased activation state of p38-MAPK was maintained for several hours before control values were reattained after 24 h of stimulation. Furthermore, the NO donors also activated the classical extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) p44-MAPK cascade as shown by phosphorylation of the specific substrate cytosolic phospholipase A2 in an immunocomplex kinase reaction. Both MAHMA-NO and spermine-NO cause a rapid activation of p44-MAPK after 10 min of stimulation. Interestingly, there is a second delayed peak of p44-MAPK activation after 4-24 h of stimulation with NO donors. These results suggest that there is a differential activation pattern for stress-activated and mitogen-activated protein kinases by NO and that the integration of these signals may lead to specific cell responses.  (+info)

(2/1661) Differential regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor fms-like-tyrosine kinase is mediated by nitric oxide in rat renal mesangial cells.

Under conditions associated with local and systemic inflammation, mesangial cells and invading immune cells are likely to be responsible for the release of large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in the glomerulus. To further define the mechanisms of NO action in the glomerulus, we attempted to identify genes which are regulated by NO in rat glomerular mesangial cells. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase (FLT-1) to be under the regulatory control of exogenously applied NO in these cells. Using S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO) as an NO-donating agent, VEGF expression was strongly induced, whereas expression of its FLT-1 receptor simultaneously decreased. Expressional regulation of VEGF and FLT-1 mRNA was transient and occurred rapidly within 1-3 h after GSNO treatment. Expression of a second VEGF-specific receptor, fetal liver kinase-1 (FLK-1/KDR), could not be detected. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta mediated a moderate increase in VEGF expression after 24 h and had no influence on FLT-1 expression. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor-BB and basic fibroblast growth factor had no effect on VEGF expression, but strongly induced FLT-1 mRNA levels. Obviously, there is a differential regulation of VEGF and its receptor FLT-1 by NO, cytokines and growth factors in rat mesangial cells.  (+info)

(3/1661) Suppression subtractive hybridization identifies high glucose levels as a stimulus for expression of connective tissue growth factor and other genes in human mesangial cells.

Accumulation of mesangial matrix is a pivotal event in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. The molecular triggers for matrix production are still being defined. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization identified 15 genes differentially induced when primary human mesangial cells are exposed to high glucose (30 mM versus 5 mM) in vitro. These genes included (a) known regulators of mesangial cell activation in diabetic nephropathy (fibronectin, caldesmon, thrombospondin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), (b) novel genes, and (c) known genes whose induction by high glucose has not been reported. Prominent among the latter were genes encoding cytoskeleton-associated proteins and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a modulator of fibroblast matrix production. In parallel experiments, elevated CTGF mRNA levels were demonstrated in glomeruli of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Mannitol provoked less mesangial cell CTGF expression in vitro than high glucose, excluding hyperosmolality as the key stimulus. The addition of recombinant CTGF to cultured mesangial cells enhanced expression of extracellular matrix proteins. High glucose stimulated expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and addition of TGF-beta1 to mesangial cells triggered CTGF expression. CTGF expression induced by high glucose was partially suppressed by anti-TGF-beta1 antibody and by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X. Together, these data suggest that 1) high glucose stimulates mesangial CTGF expression by TGFbeta1-dependent and protein kinase C dependent pathways, and 2) CTGF may be a mediator of TGFbeta1-driven matrix production within a diabetic milieu.  (+info)

(4/1661) Interleukin-12 is synthesized by mesangial cells and stimulates platelet-activating factor synthesis, cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell shape change.

Preliminary studies indicate the involvement of interleukin (IL)-12 in experimental renal pathology. In the present study, we evaluated whether cultured glomerular mesangial cells are able to produce IL-12 and whether IL-12 may regulate some of their functions, including the cytoskeletal reorganization, the change in cell shape, and the production of platelet-activating factor (PAF). The results obtained indicate that pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and bacterial polysaccharides, induce the expression of IL-12 mRNA and the synthesis of the protein by cultured mesangial cells. Moreover, cultured mesangial cells were shown to bind IL-12 and to express the human low-affinity IL-12 beta1-chain receptor. When challenged with IL-12, mesangial cells produced PAF in a dose- and time-dependent manner and superoxide anions. No production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8 was observed. Moreover, we demonstrate that IL-12 induced a delayed and sustained shape change of mesangial cells that reached its maximum between 90 and 120 minutes of incubation. The changes in cell shape occurred concomitantly with cytoskeletal rearrangements and may be consistent with cell contraction. As IL-12-dependent shape change of mesangial cells was concomitant with the synthesis of PAF, which is known to promote mesangial cell contraction, we investigated the role of PAF using two chemically different PAF receptor antagonists. Both antagonists inhibited almost completely the cell shape change induced by IL-12, whereas they were ineffective on angiotensin-II-induced cell shape change. In conclusion, our results suggest that mesangial cells can either produce IL-12 or be stimulated by this cytokine to synthesize PAF and to undergo shape changes compatible with cell contraction.  (+info)

(5/1661) Expression of bcl-2 and bax in glomerular disease.

Bcl-2 may account in part for the maintenance of hypercellularity in human glomerular diseases through preventing cell death and by counteracting bax which may be expressed to regulate excessive proliferation. This process is associated with the effect of PDGF B-chain expression. Bax expression may be important in the cell loss leading to glomerulosclerosis and TGF-beta1 participates in this process by increasing bax expression. Thus, the balance of bcl-2/bax expression may be critical in the course of human glomerular diseases.  (+info)

(6/1661) Mycophenolate mofetil inhibits rat and human mesangial cell proliferation by guanosine depletion.

BACKGROUND: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is used for immunosuppression after renal transplantation because it reduces lymphocyte proliferation by inhibiting inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) in lymphocytes and GTP biosynthesis. In the present study we asked if therapeutic concentrations of MMF might interfere with mesangial cell (MC) proliferation which is involved in inflammatory proliferative glomerular diseases. METHODS: Rat and human MCs were growth-arrested by withdrawal of fetal calf serum (FCS) and stimulated by addition of FCS, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Different concentrations of MMF (0.019-10 microM) were added concomitantly in the presence or absence of guanosine. MC proliferation was determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Apoptotic nuclei were stained using the Hoechst dye H33258. Cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations were determined with the fluorescent calcium chelator fura-2-AM. RESULTS: MMF inhibited mitogen-induced rat MC proliferation with an IC50 of 0.45 +/- 0.13 microM. Human MCs proved to be even more sensitive (IC50 0.19 +/- 0.06 microM). Inhibition of MC proliferation was reversible and not accompanied by cellular necrosis or apoptosis. Addition of guanosine prevented the antiproliferative effect of MMF, indicating that inhibition of IMPDH is responsible for decreased MC proliferation. Early signalling events of GTP-binding-protein-coupled receptors, such as changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels were not affected by MMF. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that MMF has a concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on cultured MCs in the therapeutic range, which might be a rationale for the use of this drug in the treatment of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis.  (+info)

(7/1661) Nitric oxide donors induce stress signaling via ceramide formation in rat renal mesangial cells.

Exogenous NO is able to trigger apoptosis of renal mesangial cells, and thus may contribute to acute lytic phases as well as to resolution of glomerulonephritis. However, the mechanism involved in these events is still unclear. We report here that chronic exposure of renal mesangial cells for 24 h to compounds releasing NO, including spermine-NO, (Z)-1-{N-methyl-N-[6-(N-methylammoniohexyl)amino]}diazen-1-ium-1, 2-diolate (MAHMA-NO), S-nitrosoglutathione (GS-NO), and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) results in a potent and dose-dependent increase in the lipid signaling molecule ceramide. Time courses reveal that significant effects occur after 2-4 h of stimulation with NO donors and reach maximal levels after 24 h of stimulation. No acute (within minutes) ceramide production can be detected. When cells were stimulated with NO donors in the presence of phorbol ester, a direct activator of protein kinase C, both ceramide production and DNA fragmentation are completely abolished. Furthermore, addition of exogenous ceramide partially reversed the inhibitory effect of phorbol ester on apoptosis, thus suggesting a negative regulation of protein kinase C on ceramide formation and apoptosis. In contrast to exogenous NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha stimulates a very rapid and transient increase in ceramide levels within minutes but fails to induce the late-phase ceramide formation. Moreover, TNF fails to induce apoptosis in mesangial cells. Interestingly, NO and TNFalpha cause a chronic activation of acidic and neutral sphingomyelinases, the ceramide-generating enzymes, whereas acidic and neutral ceramidases, the ceramide-metabolizing enzymes, are inhibited by NO, but potently stimulated by TNFalpha. Furthermore, in the presence of an acidic ceramidase inhibitor, N-oleoylethanolamine, TNFalpha leads to a sustained accumulation of ceramide and in parallel induces DNA fragmentation. In summary, our data demonstrate that exogenous NO causes a chronic up-regulation of ceramide levels in mesangial cells by activating sphingomyelinases and concomitantly inhibiting ceramidases, and that particularly the late-phase of ceramide generation may be responsible for the further processing of a proapoptotic signal.  (+info)

(8/1661) Shrinkage-induced activation of Na+/H+ exchange in rat renal mesangial cells.

Using the pH-sensitive dye 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), we examined the effect of hyperosmolar solutions, which presumably caused cell shrinkage, on intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in mesangial cells (single cells or populations) cultured from the rat kidney. The calibration of BCECF is identical in shrunken and unshrunken mesangial cells if the extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]) is adjusted to match the predicted intracellular [K+]. For pHi values between approximately 6.7 and approximately 7.4, the intrinsic buffering power in shrunken cells (600 mosmol/kgH2O) is threefold larger than in unshrunken cells (approximately 300 mosmol/kgH2O). In the nominal absence of CO2/HCO-3, exposing cell populations to a HEPES-buffered solution supplemented with approximately 300 mM mannitol (600 mosmol/kgH2O) causes steady-state pHi to increase by approximately 0.4. The pHi increase is due to activation of Na+/H+ exchange because, in single cells, it is blocked in the absence of external Na+ or in the presence of 50 microM ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA). Preincubating cells in a Cl--free solution for at least 14 min inhibits the shrinkage-induced pHi increase by 80%. We calculated the pHi dependence of the Na+/H+ exchange rate in cell populations under normosmolar and hyperosmolar conditions by summing 1) the pHi dependence of the total acid-extrusion rate and 2) the pHi dependence of the EIPA-insensitive acid-loading rate. Shrinkage alkali shifts the pHi dependence of Na+/H+ exchange by approximately 0.7 pH units.  (+info)