Small angle X-ray scattering of wheat seed-storage proteins: alpha-, gamma- and omega-gliadins and the high molecular weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin.
Small angle X-ray scattering in solution was performed on seed-storage proteins from wheat. Three different groups of gliadins (alpha-, gamma- and omega-) and a high molecular weight (HMW) subunit of glutenin (1Bx20) were studied to determine molecular size parameters. All the gliadins could be modelled as prolate ellipsoids with extended conformations. The HMW subunit existed as a highly extended rod-like particle in solution with a length of about 69 nm and a diameter of about 6.4 nm. Specific aggregation effects were observed which may reflect mechanisms of self-assembly that contribute to the unique viscoelastic properties of wheat dough. (+info)
Measurement of gluten using a monoclonal antibody to a coeliac toxic peptide of A-gliadin.
BACKGROUND: Future European Community regulations will require a sensitive and specific assay for measurement of coeliac toxic gluten proteins in foods marketed as gluten-free. To avoid spurious cross reactions with non-toxic proteins, specific antibodies and target antigens are required. A synthetic 19 amino acid peptide of A gliadin has been shown to cause deterioration in the morphology of small intestinal biopsy specimens of coeliac patients in remission. AIMS: To develop an assay for detection of gluten in foods, based on measurement of a known toxic peptide. METHODS: A monoclonal antibody raised against the toxic A gliadin peptide, with a polyclonal anti-unfractionated gliadin capture antibody, was used to develop a double sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of gluten in foods. RESULTS: Standard curves for gliadin and for rye, barley, and oat prolamins were produced. The sensitivity of the assay was 4 ng/ml of gliadin, 500 ng/ml for rye prolamins, and 1000 ng/ml for oat and barley prolamins. The assay could detect gluten in cooked foods, although at reduced sensitivity. Prolamins from coeliac non-toxic rice, maize, millet, and sorghum did not cross react in the assay. A variety of commercially available gluten-free foods were analysed; small quantities of gluten were detected in some products. CONCLUSION: The assay may form the basis of a sensitive method for measurement of gluten in foods for consumption by patients with coeliac disease. (+info)
Determination of disulfide bonds in gamma-46 gliadin.
The disulfide bonds in gamma-46 gliadin were identified: Cys173--Cys192, Cys212--Cys291, Cys165--Cys199 (or Cys200), Cys283--Cys200 (or Cys199). The disulfide-containing peptides were obtained by limited hydrolysis of the intact protein with chymotrypsin at an enzyme/substrate ratio of 1:1000 at 20 degrees C for 22 h with subsequent digestion of disulfide-containing fragments with trypsin and chymotrypsin. The locations of disulfide bonds were determined by sequencing disulfide-containing fractions and constituent peptides and comparison of the obtained sequences with the partial amino acid sequence of gamma-46 gliadin determined earlier. (+info)
Is gliadin mispresented to the immune system in coeliac disease? A hypothesis.
The primary pathogenic trigger in coeliac disease (CD) is still unknown. We present the hypothesis that in CD the enterocytes could metabolize gliadin through an immunogenic pathway instead of a tolerogenic one. The result of this abnormal presentation of gliadin to the immune system would be the activation of lamina propria T cells, followed by the onset of enteropathy. (+info)
Mode of delivery directs the phagocyte functions of infants for the first 6 months of life.
Factors that direct the immune responsiveness of the newborn beyond the immediate post-natal period are not known. We investigated the influence of mode of delivery and type of feeding on the phagocyte activity during the first 6 months of life. Sixty-four healthy infants (34 delivered vaginally and 30 by elective Caesarean section) were studied at birth and at the ages of 2 and 6 months. Phagocyte functions were studied by measuring the chemiluminescence (CL) activity of whole blood and isolated leucocytes and by investigating the expression of phagocyte receptors (FcgammaRI (CD64), FcgammaRII (CD32), FcgammaRIII (CD16), CR1 (CD35), CR3 (CD11b) and FcalphaR (CD89)) on neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils by using receptor-specific MoAbs and immunofluorescence flow cytometry. Infants born by elective Caesarean section had significantly higher CL activity than those delivered vaginally during the entire 6-month follow up. In addition, infants who received formula feeds had significantly higher CL activity at 6 months of age and higher expression of FcgammaRI-, Fcalpha- and CR3-receptors on neutrophils than infants exclusively breast-fed. We suggest that stress reaction associated with labour influences the phagocytic activity measured in the cord blood but later during infancy the intraluminal antigens, gut microflora and diet, become important determinants in immune programming of human individuals. (+info)
A non-toxic analogue of a coeliac-activating gliadin peptide: a basis for immunomodulation?
BACKGROUND: A-gliadin residues 31-49 (peptide A) binds to HLA-DQ2 and is toxic to coeliac small bowel. Analogues of this peptide, which bind to DQ2 molecules but are non-toxic, may be a potential route to inducing tolerance to gliadin in patients with coeliac disease. METHODS: Toxicity was investigated with small bowel organ culture in six patients with untreated coeliac disease, four with treated coeliac disease and six controls. Analogue peptides comprised alanine substituted variants of peptide A at L31 (peptide D), P36 (E), P38 (F), P39 (G) and P42 (H). RESULTS: Peptides D and E were toxic in biopsies from some patients. Peptides F, G and H were not toxic. CONCLUSIONS: Peptide F, which binds to DQ2 more strongly than peptide A, is not toxic in patients with coeliac disease in-vitro; this could be an initial step towards investigation of the induction of tolerance to gliadin in patients affected by coeliac disease. (+info)
T cell proliferation, MHC class II restriction and cytokine products of gliadin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).
The immune response of PBMC to gliadin was investigated in patients with coeliac disease (CoD) by examining proliferation, MHC restriction and cytokine production. Gliadin induced low levels of proliferation in 63% of eight untreated patients, 32% of 28 treated patients and 35% of 31 healthy control subjects. In MHC restriction studies, the proliferative response to gliadin was inhibited (range 47-98% inhibition) in the presence of a MoAb to HLA-DR in each of three coeliac and three control donors studied. Using flow cytometry, increased expression of activation markers (HLA-DR and IL-2R) was demonstrated on gliadin-stimulated T cells from four of nine coeliac patients and three of seven healthy control donors. Cytokines were studied in culture supernatants using ELISA. Gliadin was a potent inducer of IL-6 and IL-10 in 100% of coeliac patients and controls, whereas IL-4 was not produced in either subject group. Gliadin induced IL-2 production in 40% of untreated patients, 42% of treated patients and 35% of healthy control donors. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in gliadin-stimulated cultures was found only in coeliac patients, observed in 33% of untreated patients and 25% of treated patients. Spontaneous secretion of both IL-2 and IFN-gamma was found more frequently in patients with untreated disease (87% of cases versus 21% of controls for IFN-gamma and 40% versus 0% for IL-2). These results suggest, as manifest by IFN-gamma production, that gliadin stimulates a Th1/Th0-like response in coeliac patients and a Th0-like response in healthy controls. (+info)
IgA-gliadin antibodies, IgA-containing circulating immune complexes, and IgA glomerular deposits in wasting marmoset syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Marmosets in captivity are highly susceptible to wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS), the aetiology of which is still not fully determined. METHODS: The level of IgA-gliadin antibodies (IgA-AGA), of IgA-containing circulating immune complexes (IgA-CIC), and the degree of glomerular IgA deposits were compared between marmosets suffering from WMS and animals not affected by the disorder. RESULTS: Both IgA-AGA and IgA-CIC were demonstrable in all groups of monkeys investigated. IgA-AGA and IgA-CIC were significantly higher in monkeys with WMS than in non-affected animals. There was a significant correlation between the glomerular IgA-deposition and titre of IgA-AGA. The group of marmosets strongly positive for glomerular IgA deposits comprised significantly more animals suffering from WMS than the group without deposits. In the diet of the animals a considerable amount of gliadin-like cereal proteins was assayed. CONCLUSIONS: There are several parallels between the human disorders (coeliac disease and IgA-nephropathy/Berger's disease) and the changes observed in WMS. It should be further investigated if WMS in marmosets is a suitable animal model for both human diseases. (+info)