Early proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in normal-appearing brain correlates with outcome in patients following traumatic brain injury.
The long-term clinical outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be difficult to predict. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has previously been used to demonstrate abnormalities in regions of white matter that appear normal on conventional imaging in patients following TBI. We report MRI and MRS studies of 26 patients performed at an early time point following injury (mean 12 days, n = 21) and at a later time point (mean 6.2 months, n = 15). The proton MRS was acquired from the posterior part of a normal-appearing frontal lobe containing predominantly white matter using stimulated echo acquisition mode to localize, with a relaxation time of 3000 ms and echo time of 30 ms. At both the early and late time points the N:-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio (NAA/Cr) was significantly reduced (P = 0.03, P = 0.005, respectively), the choline/creatine ratio (Cho/Cr) significantly increased (P = 0.001, P = 0.004, respectively) and the myo-inositol/creatine ratio (Ins/Cr) significantly increased (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, respectively) compared with controls. There was a small, but significant, further reduction (P = 0.02) in the NAA/Cr between the two studies in the 10 patients for whom data was available, at both time points. The NAA/Cr acquired at the early time point significantly correlated with the clinical outcome of the patients, assessed using either the Glasgow outcome scale (P = 0.005, n = 17) or the disability rating scale (P < 0.001, n = 17). We conclude that there is a sustained alteration in NAA and Cho. These findings provide possible evidence for cellular injury (NAA loss reflecting neuroaxonal cell damage and raised Cho and Ins reflecting glial proliferation) not visible by conventional imaging techniques. This may be relevant to understanding the extent of disability following TBI. (+info)
Outcomes of early endovascular versus surgical treatment of ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A prospective randomized study.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This prospective study was conducted to compare the outcomes of surgical clipping and endovascular treatment in acute (<72 hours) aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: One hundred nine consecutive patients were randomly assigned to either surgical (n=57) or endovascular (n=52) treatment. Clinical and neuropsychological outcome was assessed at 3 and 12 months after treatment; MRI of the brain was performed at 12 months. Follow-up angiography was scheduled after clipping and 3 and 12 months after endovascular treatment. RESULTS: One year postoperatively, 43/41 (surgical/endovascular) patients had good or moderate recovery, 5/4 had severe disability or were in a vegetative state, and 9/7 had died (NS) according to intention to treat. Patients with good clinical recovery did not differ in their neuropsychological test scores. Symptomatic vasospasm (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.45 to 4.19; P<0.001), poorer Hunt and Hess grade (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.31 to 4.75; P=0.005), need for permanent shunt (OR 8.90; 95% CI 1.80 to 44.15; P=0.008), and larger size of the aneurysm (OR 1. 22; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.45; P=0.032) independently predicted worsened clinical outcome regardless of the treatment modality. In MRI, superficial brain retraction deficits (P<0.001) and ischemic lesions in the territory of the ruptured aneurysm (P=0.025) were more frequent in the surgical group. Kaplan-Meier analysis (mean+/-SD follow-up 39+/-18 months) revealed equal survival in both treatment groups. No late rebleedings have occurred. CONCLUSIONS: One-year clinical and neuropsychological outcomes seem comparable after early surgical and endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The long-term efficacy of endovascular treatment in preventing rebleeding remains open. (+info)
Intracranial pressure monitoring and outcomes after traumatic brain injury.
OBJECTIVE: Uncontrolled intracranial hypertension after traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes significantly to the death rate and to poor functional outcome. There is no evidence that intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring alters the outcome of TBI. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that insertion of ICP monitors in patients who have TBI is not associated with a decrease in the death rate. DESIGN: Study of case records. METHODS: The data files from the Ontario Trauma Registry from 1989 to 1995 were examined. Included were all cases with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 12 from the 14 trauma centres in Ontario. Cases identifying a Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale score in the head region (MAIS head) greater than 3 were selected for further analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between ICP and death. RESULTS: Of 9001 registered cases of TBI, an MAIS head greater than 3 was recorded in 5507. Of these patients, 541 (66.8% male, mean age 34.1 years) had an ICP monitor inserted. Their average ISS was 33.4 and 71.7% survived. There was wide variation among the institutions in the rate of insertion of ICP monitors in these patients (ranging from 0.4% to over 20%). Univariate logistic regression indicated that increased MAIS head, ISS, penetrating trauma and the insertion of an ICP monitor were each associated with an increased death rate. However, multivariate analyses controlling for MAIS head, ISS and injury mechanism indicated that ICP monitoring was associated with significantly improved survival (p < 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: ICP monitor insertion rates vary widely in Ontario's trauma hospitals. The insertion of an ICP monitor is associated with a statistically significant decrease in death rate among patients with severe TBI. This finding strongly supports the need for a prospective randomized trial of management protocols, including ICP monitoring, in patients with severe TBI. (+info)
Acute systemic inflammatory response syndrome in subarachnoid hemorrhage.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) without infection is a well-known phenomenon that accompanies various acute cerebral insults. We sought to determine whether the initial SIRS score was associated with outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: In 103 consecutive patients with SAH, the occurrence of SIRS was assessed according to the presence of >/=2 of the following: temperature of <36 degrees C or >38 degrees C, heart rate of >90 bpm, respiratory rate of >20 breaths/min, and white blood cell count of <4000/mm(3) or >12 000/mm(3). SIRS criteria and other prognostic parameters were evaluated as predictors of dichotomous Glasgow Outcome Scale score. RESULTS: SIRS was highly related to poor clinical grade (Hunt and Hess clinical grading scale), a large amount of SAH on CT (Fisher CT group), and high plasma glucose concentration on admission. By univariate analysis, the occurrence of SIRS was associated with higher mortality and morbidity rates than was the nonoccurrence (P<0.001). Among individual SIRS criteria, heart rate (P=0.003), respiration rate (P=0.003), and white blood cell count (P=0.03) were significant outcome predictors. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of SIRS independently predicted outcome. SIRS carried an increased risk of subsequent intracranial complications such as vasospasm and normal pressure hydrocephalus, as well as systemic complications. CONCLUSIONS: In SAH patients, SIRS on admission reflected the extent of tissue damage at onset and predicted further tissue disruption, producing clinical worsening and, ultimately, a poor outcome. (+info)
Cocaine use is an independent risk factor for cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although acute cocaine use has been temporally associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), the prevalence of vasospasm and the clinical outcome of patients experiencing aSAH associated with cocaine exposure are unclear. We have analyzed this patient population in our institution to address these issues. METHODS: Between 1992 and 1999, 440 patients presented to our institution with aSAH. This sample was retrospectively analyzed to determine which patients had used cocaine within 72 hours of aSAH as documented by urine toxicology studies or patient history. These patients were then compared with control aSAH patients without recent cocaine exposure through univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Twenty-seven aSAH patients (6.1% of total) had either urine toxicology positive for cocaine metabolites (20 patients, 74%) or a history of cocaine use within 72 hours of aSAH (7 patients, 26%). Cocaine users were more likely to experience cerebral vasospasm defined as a delayed clinical deficit (from 3 to 16 days after aSAH) unexplained by concurrent CT scan and either responsive to hypervolemic and/or hypertensive therapy or accompanied by angiographic confirmation of vessel narrowing than control subjects (63% versus 30%; odds ratio [OR], 3.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77 to 8.62; P=0.001). Patients using cocaine were younger than control subjects (mean age, 36 versus 52 years; P<0.0001). Aneurysms of the anterior circulation were observed more frequently in cocaine users than in control subjects (97% versus 84%; OR, 6.89; 95% CI, 1.18 to 47.47; P=0.029). A significant difference was not observed, however, in the discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores between the 2 groups (P=0.73). Differences were not observed between the 2 groups when the distributions of sex, hypertension, admission Glasgow Coma Scale subarachnoid hemorrhage grade, and multiple aneurysms were analyzed. Logistic regression models identified variables independently associated with vasospasm and discharge GOS score. Only a thick blood clot on the admission CT (OR, 7.46; 95% CI, 3.95 to 14.08; P<0.0001) and recent cocaine use (OR, 6.41; 95% CI, 2.14 to 19.23; P=0.0009) were independently associated with vasospasm. Cocaine use was not independently associated with the discharge GOS score. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that there is an increased prevalence of vasospasm in aSAH patients with recent cocaine exposure but no difference in clinical outcome. In addition, these patients are younger and more likely to have anterior circulation aneurysms. (+info)
Changes in intervention and outcome in elderly patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The elderly constitute a significant and increasing proportion of the population. The aim of this investigation was to study time trends in clinical management and outcome in elderly patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-one patients >/=65 years of age with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who were accepted for treatment at the Uppsala University Hospital neurosurgery clinic during 1981 to 1998 were included. Hunt and Hess grades on admission, specific management components, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Three periods were compared: A, 1981 to 1986 (before neurointensive care); B, 1987 to 1992; and C, 1993 to 1998. RESULTS: The volume of elderly patients (>/=65 years of age) increased with time, especially patients >/=70 years of age. Furthermore the proportion of patients with more severe clinical conditions increased. A greater proportion of patients had a favorable outcome (A, 45%; B, 61%; C, 58%) despite older ages and more severe neurological and clinical conditions. In period C, Hunt and Hess I to II patients had a favorable outcome in 85% of cases compared with 64% in period A. This was achieved without any increase in the number of severely disabled patients. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage can be treated successfully, and results are still improving. The introduction of neurointensive care may have contributed to the improved outcome without increasing the proportion of severely disabled patients. A defeatist attitude toward elderly patients with this otherwise devastating disease is not justified. (+info)
Evidence for excess long-term mortality after treated subarachnoid hemorrhage.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term mortality rate of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) compared with that of the general population. METHODS: Aneurysmal SAH patients who were treated for ruptured aneurysm from 1977 through 1998 in a tertiary referral center (n=1537) were followed up for a median of 7.5 years. Dates and causes of death were determined. Standardized mortality ratios (observed/expected deaths) according to age, sex, and Glasgow Outcome Scale at 12 months after surgery were calculated. RESULTS: The mortality rate among patients with good recovery at 12 months was twice that of the general population. The excess mortality appeared to be most evident in younger age groups. Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases were the principal causes of premature death. The result was similar among patients without preexisting cardiovascular diseases at the time of SAH. CONCLUSIONS: Aneurysmal SAH patients have an excess mortality rate even after successful treatment of ruptured aneurysms. Therefore, aneurysmal SAH should be viewed more as one aspect of a chronic general vascular disease, and more attention should be given to treatment of risk factors and long-term follow-up of these patients. (+info)
Cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid and delayed ischemic deficits in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) induces an inflammatory reaction and may lead to ischemic brain damage. The pathogenesis of brain dysfunction and delayed ischemic symptoms remain difficult to understand despite extensive surveys of such reactions. Cytokine production in the central nervous system following SAH and its relation with clinical outcome have hardly been studied. This study was aimed to determine whether the levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the initial cerebrospinal fluid would increase following aneurysmal SAH, and be related with development of delayed ischemic deficit and clinical outcome. Nineteen patients suffering from aneurysmal SAH and 12 control volunteers were the subjects in this study. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained on admission and the levels of each cytokine were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage showed elevated levels of IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha on admission. The patients with poor neurological status showed high levels of IL-1 beta, and IL-6. The patients who developed delayed ischemic deficit had high level of IL-6. We suggest that elevated level of IL-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with aneurysmal SAH on admission can predict the high risk of delayed ischemic deficit. (+info)