Deletions in the gibberellin biosynthesis gene cluster of Gibberella fujikuroi by restriction enzyme-mediated integration and conventional transformation-mediated mutagenesis.
We induced mutants of Gibberella fujikuroi deficient in gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis by transformation-mediated mutagenesis with the vector pAN7-1. We recovered 24 GA-defective mutants in one of nine transformation experiments performed without the addition of a restriction enzyme. Each mutant had a similar Southern blot pattern, suggesting the integration of the vector into the same site. The addition of a restriction enzyme by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) significantly increased the transformation rate and the rate of single-copy integration events. Of 1,600 REMI transformants, two produced no GAs. Both mutants had multiple copies of the vector pAN7-1 and one had a Southern blot pattern similar to those of the 24 conventionally transformed GA-deficient mutants. Biochemical analysis of the two REMI mutants confirmed that they cannot produce ent-kaurene, the first specific intermediate of the GA pathway. Feeding the radioactively labelled precursors ent-kaurene and GA12-aldehyde followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that neither of these intermediates was converted to GAs in the mutants. Southern blot analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the transformants using the bifunctional ent-copalyl diphosphate/ent-kaurene synthase gene (cps/ks) and the flanking regions as probes revealed a large deletion in the GA-deficient REMI transformants and in the GA-deficient transformants obtained by conventional insertional transformation. We conclude that transformation procedures with and without the addition of restriction enzymes can lead to insertion-mediated mutations and to deletions and chromosome translocations. (+info)
Molecular standardization of mating type terminology in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex.
Mating type in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex is controlled by a single locus with two alleles and is usually identified following sexual crosses with standard, female-fertile tester isolates. The mating type alleles have been arbitrarily designated "+" and "-" within each biological species, and the nomenclature is tied to the standard tester strains. We developed a pair of PCR primers that can be used to amplify a unique fragment of one of the mating type alleles (MAT-2) from at least seven of the biological species in this species complex. Based on the amplification pattern, we propose a replacement for the existing, arbitrary +/- terminology that is presently in use. The new terminology is based on DNA sequence similarities between the mating type allele fragments from the biological species of the G. fujikuroi species complex and the corresponding fragments from other filamentous ascomycetes. (+info)
Lovastatin inhibits the production of gibberellins but not sterol or carotenoid biosynthesis in Gibberella fujikuroi.
Sterols, carotenoids and gibberellins are synthesized after the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) to mevalonate in different subcellular compartments of the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. Lovastatin inhibits growth in many organisms, presumably because of the inhibition of the synthesis of essential terpenoids. However, in G. fujikuroi growth of the mycelia and sterol and carotenoid content were not affected by the presence of lovastatin. Nevertheless, lovastatin did inhibit the accumulation of gibberellins in the culture medium; this inhibition, however, was counteracted by the addition of mevalonate to the medium. The conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate in cell-free extracts was inhibited by 10 nM lovastatin. Since G. fujikuroi apparently possesses a single gene for HMG-CoA reductase, as shown by Southern hybridization and PCR amplification, it was concluded that the biosynthesis of sterols, carotenoids and gibberellins shares a single HMG-CoA reductase, but the respective subcellular compartments are differentially accessible to lovastatin. (+info)
Cloning of a full-length cDNA encoding ent-kaurene synthase from Gibberella fujikuroi: functional analysis of a bifunctional diterpene cyclase.
We report here the nucleotide sequence of a full-length cDNA encoding ent-kaurene synthase that was isolated by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction from Gibberella fujikuroi (Gcps/ks). This cDNA encodes 952 amino acid residues with a relative molecular mass of 107 kDa. The sequence similarity between Gcps/ks and ent-kaurene synthase of the gibberellin A1-producing fungus, Phaeosphaeria sp. L487, is very high, suggesting that Gcps/ks is also a bifunctional diterpene cyclase. Its recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli converted geranylgeranyl diphosphate to copalyl diphosphate and ent-kaurene. (+info)
Analysis of aberrant virulence of Gibberella zeae following transformation-mediated complementation of a trichothecene-deficient (Tri5) mutant.
Gibberella zeae causes wheat ear blight and produces trichothecene toxins in infected grain. In previous studies, trichothecene production in this fungus was disabled by specific disruption of the trichodiene synthase gene (Tri5) and was restored by two methods: gene reversion and transformation-mediated mutant complementation. In previous field tests of wheat ear blight, trichothecene-nonproducing mutants were less virulent than the wild-type progenitor strain from which they were derived. Trichothecene-producing revertants also were restored to wild-type levels of virulence. In contrast, in the field test of wheat ear blight reported here, trichothecene-producing strains obtained by Tri5 mutant complementation were not restored to wild-type levels of virulence. The complemented mutants showed a slightly reduced radial growth compared to the wild-type strain, but otherwise appeared normal in morphology, pigmentation and sexual fertility. Genetic analysis indicated that the aberrant virulence of a complemented mutant was likely due to non-target effects that occurred during the process of transforming the trichothecene-nonproducing mutant with Tri5. These results confirm previous findings that trichothecenes contribute to the virulence of G. zeae, but also demonstrate that manipulating this fungus in the laboratory may cause it to undergo subtle changes that reduce its virulence. (+info)
PCR-based identification of MAT-1 and MAT-2 in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex.
All sexually fertile strains in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex are heterothallic, with individual mating types conferred by the broadly conserved ascomycete idiomorphs MAT-1 and MAT-2. We sequenced both alleles from all eight mating populations, developed a multiplex PCR technique to distinguish these idiomorphs, and tested it with representative strains from all eight biological species and 22 additional species or phylogenetic lineages from this species complex. In most cases, either an approximately 800-bp fragment from MAT-2 or an approximately 200-bp fragment from MAT-1 is amplified. The amplified fragments cosegregate with mating type, as defined by sexual cross-fertility, in a cross of Fusarium moniliforme (Fusarium verticillioides). Neither of the primer pairs amplify fragments from Fusarium species such as Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium pseudograminearum, and Fusarium culmorum, which have, or are expected to have, Gibberella sexual stages but are thought to be relatively distant from the species in the G. fujikuroi species complex. Our results suggest that MAT allele sequences are useful indicators of phylogenetic relatedness in these and other Fusarium species. (+info)
The P450-1 gene of Gibberella fujikuroi encodes a multifunctional enzyme in gibberellin biosynthesis.
Recent studies have shown that the genes of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway in the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi are organized in a cluster of at least seven genes. P450-1 is one of four cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes in this cluster. Disruption of the P450-1 gene in the GA-producing wild-type strain IMI 58289 led to total loss of GA production. Analysis of the P450-1-disrupted mutants indicated that GA biosynthesis was blocked immediately after ent-kaurenoic acid. The function of the P450-1 gene product was investigated further by inserting the gene into mutants of G. fujikuroi that lack the entire GA gene cluster; the gene was highly expressed under GA production conditions in the absence of the other GA-biosynthesis genes. Cultures of transformants containing P450-1 converted ent-[(14)C]kaurenoic acid efficiently into [(14)C]GA(14), indicating that P450-1 catalyzes four sequential steps in the GA-biosynthetic pathway: 7beta-hydroxylation, contraction of ring B by oxidation at C-6, 3beta-hydroxylation, and oxidation at C-7. The GA precursors ent-7alpha-hydroxy[(14)C]kaurenoic acid, [(14)C]GA(12)-aldehyde, and [(14)C]GA(12) were also converted to [(14)C]GA(14). In addition, there is an indication that P450-1 may also be involved in the formation of the kaurenolides and fujenoic acids, which are by-products of GA biosynthesis in G. fujikuroi. Thus, P450-1 displays remarkable multifunctionality and may be responsible for the formation of 12 products. (+info)
Identification of deoxynivalenol- and nivalenol-producing chemotypes of Gibberella zeae by using PCR.
Gibberella zeae, a major cause of cereal scab, may be divided into two chemotypes based on production of the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). We cloned and sequenced the gene cluster for trichothecene biosynthesis from each chemotype. G. zeae H-11 is a DON producer isolated from corn, and G. zeae 88-1 is a NIV producer from barley. We sequenced a 23-kb gene cluster from H-11 and a 26-kb cluster from 88-1, along with the unlinked Tri101 genes. Each gene cluster contained 10 Tri gene homologues in the same order and transcriptional directions as those of Fusarium sporotrichioides. Between H-11 and 88-1 all of the Tri homologues except Tri7 were conserved, with identities ranging from 88 to 98% and 82 to 99% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The Tri7 sequences were only 80% identical at the nucleotide level. We aligned the Tri7 genes and found that the Tri7 open reading frame of H-11 carried several mutations and an insertion containing 10 copies of an 11-bp tandem repeat. The Tri7 gene from 88-1 carried neither the repeat nor the mutations. We assayed 100 G. zeae isolates of both chemotypes by PCR amplification with a primer pair derived from the Tri7 gene and could differentiate the chemotypes by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The PCR-based method developed in this study should provide a simple and reliable diagnostic tool for differentiating the two chemotypes of G. zeae. (+info)