New evidence from Le Moustier 1: computer-assisted reconstruction and morphometry of the skull.
In this study, we present a new computerized reconstruction of the Le Moustier 1 Neanderthal skull and discuss its significance for Neanderthal growth and variability. Because of the precarious state of preservation of the original material, we applied entirely noninvasive methods of fossil reconstruction and morphometry, using a combination of computed tomography, computer graphics, and stereolithography. After electronic restoration, the isolated original pieces were recomposed on the computer screen using external and internal anatomical clues to position the bone fragments and mirror images to complete missing parts. The inferred effects of general compressive deformation that occurred during fossilization were corrected by virtual decompression of the skull. The resulting new reconstruction of the Le Moustier 1 skull shows morphologic features close to the typical Neanderthal adult state. Residual asymmetry of skeletal parts can be traced to in vivo skeletal modification: the left mandibular joint shows signs of a healed condylar fracture, and the anatomy of the occipital region suggests mild plagiocephaly. Using micro-CT analysis, the left incus could be recovered from the matrix filling of the middle ear cavity. Its morphometric dimensions are similar to those of the La Ferrassie III incus. The morphometric characteristics of the inner ear deviate substantially from the condition reported as typical for Neanderthals and fall within the range of modern human variability. (+info)
Prevalence of respiratory and atopic disorders among children in the East and West of Germany five years after unification.
Living conditions in eastern Germany have changed rapidly since unification in 1990 and little is known about how these changes affect the prevalence of atopic diseases. This study describes methods and prevalences of a large epidemiological project investigating determinants of childhood asthma and allergies in eastern (Dresden and Leipzig) and western (Munich) Germany in 1995/1996. Community based random samples of 9-11 yr old children in Dresden (n=3,017) and Munich (n=2,612), and of 5-7 yr old children in Dresden (n=3,300), Leipzig (n=3,167) and Munich (n=2,165) were studied by parental questionnaires, bronchial challenges with hypertonic saline, skin examination, skin-prick tests, and measurements of specific and total serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E using Phase II modules of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). In 9-11 yr old children, the prevalence of physician diagnosed asthma (7.9% versus 10.3%; p<0.01) and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (15.7% versus 19.9%; p<0.05) was lower in Dresden than in Munich. No difference between Munich and Dresden was observed in the prevalence of diagnosed hay fever, skin test reactivity to > or = 1 allergen, and increased levels (>0.35 kU x L(-1)) of specific IgE against inhalant and food allergens. Symptoms and visible signs of atopic eczema tended to be more prevalent in Dresden. Similar East-West differences between the three study areas were seen in the younger age group. These findings are in line with recently observed increases in the prevalence of hay fever and atopic sensitization, but not of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, among 9-11 yr old children in Leipzig. (+info)
Airway diseases and allergies in East and West German children during the first 5 years after reunification: time trends and the impact of sulphur dioxide and total suspended particles.
BACKGROUND: East-West comparison studies in Europe find higher prevalences of infectious airway diseases and lower prevalences of allergies in eastern areas. Pollution from sulphur dioxide (SO2) or total suspended particles (TSP) are discussed as causes of this difference. METHODS: In four differently polluted areas of East Germany where pollution decreased dramatically between 1989 and 1995 cross-sectional studies in about 7-year-old children were repeated every year between 1991 and 1995. In two differently polluted areas of West Germany studies with the same design were done in 1991 and 1994. In all, 19090 children participated in the study. Thirteen different questions about airway diseases and allergies were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: With the exception of pneumonia, all infectious airway diseases and irritations of the airways show a steeper temporal decrease in East than in West Germany or are positively associated with either SO2 or TSP in East Germany. For allergies and related symptoms no differences in time trends could be detected or no association with SO2 or TSP could be seen in East Germany. CONCLUSION: Most airway diseases were more frequent in East than in West Germany in 1991 and were associated with SO2 or TSP. The decrease in these pollutants between 1991 and 1995 has already had a favourable effect. An effect of SO2 or TSP pollution on allergies and related symptoms could not be detected. This pollution does not protect against the development of allergies. (+info)
Trends in maternal mortality ratio among women of German and non-German nationality in West Germany, 1980-1996.
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is a sensitive indicator for inequity in health. We describe recent trends in overall and cause-specific maternal mortality ratio among women of German and non-German nationality residing in West Germany. METHODS: Using birth and death register data for 1980-1996 we related 1067 cases of maternal death (ICD 9: 630-676) to 11.2 million live births. We assessed the effects of nationality and of marital status, a proxy for socioeconomic status, controlling for year of death and age of the mother in a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: Maternal mortality ratio in West Germany decreased from 13 per 100000 live births in 1980-1988 to 6.1 in 1989-1996. The crude relative risk for non-German nationality decreased from 1.9 (95% CI: 1.6-2.3) to 1.3 (1.0-1.7); after adjusting for age, year of death and marital status it was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.4-2.1) and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.1). Unmarried women incurred an adjusted relative risk of 1.8 (95% CI: 1.5-2.3). Non-German women experienced an excess mortality from abortions which largely disappeared in 1989-1996; concurrently, being unmarried no longer conveyed an additional risk to them. The risk status of German mothers developed unfavourably: increasing proportions are unmarried, which continues to be a marker of elevated relative risk in this group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest continuously improving accessibility and quality of obstetric services, in particular for women of non-German nationality. Still, inequity in maternal risk continues to exist. Maternal risk, however, is not determined by the simple distinction 'German' versus 'non-German'; its association with socioeconomic status extends beyond nationality. (+info)
Self rating of health is associated with stressful life events, social support and residency in East and West Berlin shortly after the fall of the wall.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the health status and factors influencing the health of populations that had previously lived under different political systems. DESIGN: Cross sectional health and social survey using postal interviews. The relation between self reported health and psychosocial factors (stressful life events, social support, education, health promoting life style and health endangering behaviour) was investigated. To determine East-West differences a logistic regression model including interaction terms was fitted. SETTING: East and West Berlin shortly after reunification 1991. PARTICIPANTS: Representative sample of 4430 Berlin residents aged 18 years and over (response rate 63%). RESULTS: Of all respondents, 15.4% rated their health as unsatisfactory. Residents of East Berlin rated their health more frequently as unsatisfactory than residents of West Berlin (Or(age adjusted)= 1.29, 95%CI 1.08, 1.52), these differences occurred predominantly in the over 60 years age group. Logistic regression showed significant independent effects of stressful life events, social support, education, and health promoting life style on self rated health. The effects of education and health promoting life style were observed to be more pronounced in the western part of Berlin. Old age and female sex showed a stronger association with unsatisfactory health status in the eastern part of Berlin. CONCLUSIONS: For subjects aged over 60 years there was evidence that living in the former East Berlin had an adverse effect on health compared with West Berlin. The impact of education and a health promoting lifestyle on self rated health seemed to be weaker in a former socialist society compared with that of a Western democracy. This study supports an "additive model" rather than a "buffering model" in explaining the effects of psychosocial factors on health. (+info)
Sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to penicillin in West Germany.
The sensitivity of gonococci to penicillin in Germany has largely decreased in the last 22 years. No significant decrease has occurred, however, in the last three years, but the results show that a slight tendency to decrease may be persisting. (+info)
Injury mortality in East Germany.
OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effects of social changes in East Germany since 1989 on patterns of injury mortality. METHODS: Death certificate data regarding injuries from 1980 through 1995 and police data regarding traffic injuries in East Germany from 1980 through 1998 were compared with similar data from West Germany. RESULTS: The number of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths in East Germany increased dramatically between 1989 and 1991, whereas those in West Germany declined slightly. The increased mortality in the more rural East has especially involved young men driving automobiles on rural roads and has persisted since reunification of East and West Germany. Falls, other accidents, and suicides have shown no such effect. Homicide among East German men has increased but remains uncommon. CONCLUSIONS: Recent social changes in East Germany, including increased access to motor vehicles and decreased restrictions on personal freedom, have been associated with increased motor vehicle crashes and mortality, especially among young men and on rural roads. (+info)
Changing mortality patterns in East and West Germany and Poland. I: long term trends (1960-1997)
OBJECTIVES: To examine the long term evolution of mortality in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) in the period from 1960 and its specific position in health terms compared with the Federal Republic (FRG) in the west and Poland in the east. METHODS: Decomposition of life expectancy by age and cause of death. Differences in life expectancy at birth between the former GDR and the old FRG were decomposed by age using data on all cause mortality for the period 1960 to 1997. Changes in life expectancy over time by cause of death were examined using data for 1974 and 1989 for both parts of Germany and for 1974 and 1988 for Poland. RESULTS: Male life expectancy in the two parts of Germany diverged twice, in the mid-1960s, favouring the GDR, and in the mid-1970s, giving increasing advantage to the FRG, while female life expectancy remained similar until the mid-1970s and began to diverge thereafter. The initial advantage of the GDR was mainly attributable to an improving mortality rate among children compared with that in the west in both sexes. During the 1980s, mortality among men over 15 and women over 40 steadily worsened relative to their western counterparts, although men were doing considerably better than those in Poland who actually experienced deterioration. In the FRG, falling death rates among adults of all ages have contributed substantially to the improvement in life expectancy between 1974 and 1989, largely attributable to falling deaths from cardiovascular disease and from injuries at younger adult ages. In Poland, death rates among male adults have risen at all ages over 35, mostly attributable to worsening death rates from cardiovascular disease and neoplasms while women experienced stagnation. The GDR showed a small worsening among men under 60, counterbalanced by improvements among those over 60, and some improvement in women, attributable to falling deaths from cardiovascular disease among the middle aged and elderly. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence for the complexity of the east-west mortality differential emerging in the 1960s in Europe, highlighting the intermediate position in health terms the former GDR occupied during much of the communist period. Further research is required to assess the underlying causes for the specific position of the former GDR between east and west. (+info)