(1/119) Purification and characterization of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869.
Two 3-hydroxybenzoate-inducible gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases were purified to homogeneity from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 (P25X) and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869 (P35X), respectively. The estimated molecular mass of the purified P25X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 154 kDa, with a subunit mass of 39 kDa. Its structure is deduced to be a tetramer. The pI of this enzyme was established to be 4.8 to 5.0. The subunit mass of P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 41 kDa, and this enzyme was deduced to exist as a dimer, with a native molecular mass of about 82 kDa. The pI of P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was around 4.6 to 4.8. Both of the gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases exhibited typical saturation kinetics and had apparent Kms of 92 and 143 microM for gentisate, respectively. Broad substrate specificities were exhibited towards alkyl and halogenated gentisate analogs. Both enzymes had similar kinetic turnover characteristics for gentisate, with kcat/Km values of 44.08 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P25X enzyme and 39.34 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P35X enzyme. Higher kcat/Km values were expressed by both enzymes against the substituted gentisates. Significant differences were observed between the N-terminal sequences of the first 23 amino acid residues of the P25X and P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases. The P25X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was stable between pH 5.0 and 7.5, with the optimal pH around 8.0. The P35X enzyme showed a pH stability range between 7.0 and 9.0, and the optimum pH was also 8.0. The optimal temperature for both P25X and P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenases was around 50 degrees C, but the P35X enzyme was more heat stable than that from P25X. Both enzymes were strongly stimulated by 0.1 mM Fe2+ but were completely inhibited by the presence of 5 mM Cu2+. Partial inhibition of both enzymes was also observed with 5 mM Mn2+, Zn2+, and EDTA. (+info)
(2/119) Involvement of cytochromes P-450 2E1 and 3A4 in the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate in humans.
Hydroxylation of salicylate into 2,3 and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids (2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA) by human liver microsomal preparations was investigated. Kinetic studies demonstrated that salicylate was 5-hydroxylated with two apparent Km: one high-affinity Km of 606 microM and one low-affinity Km greater than 2 mM. Liver microsomes prepared from 15 human samples catalyzed the formation of 2,5-DHBA at metabolic rate of 21.7 +/- 8.5 pmol/mg/min. The formation of 2, 3-DHBA was not P-450 dependent. Formation of 2,5-DHBA was inhibited by 36 +/- 14% following preincubation of microsomes with diethyldithiocarbamate, a mechanism-based selective inhibitor of P-450 2E1. Furthermore, the efficiency of inhibition was significantly correlated with four catalytic activities specific to P-450 2E1, whereas the residual activity was correlated with three P-450 3A4 catalytic activities. Troleandomycin, a mechanism-based inhibitor selective to P-450 3A4, inhibited by 30 +/- 12% the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate, and this inhibition was significantly correlated with nifedipine oxidation, specific to P-450 3A4. The capability of seven recombinant human P-450s to hydroxylate salicylate demonstrated that P-450 2E1 and 3A4 contributed to 2, 5-DHBA formation in approximately equal proportions. The Km values of recombinant P-450 2E1 and 3A4, 280 and 513 microM, respectively, are in the same range as the high-affinity Km measured with human liver microsomes. The plasmatic metabolic ratio 2,5-DHBA/salicylate, measured 2 h after ingestion of 1 g acetylsalicylate, was increased 3-fold in 12 alcoholic patients at the beginning of their withdrawal period versus 15 control subjects. These results confirm that P-450 2E1, inducible by ethanol, is involved in the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate in humans. Furthermore, this ratio was still increased by 2-fold 1 week after ethanol withdrawal. This finding suggests that P-450 3A4, known to be also inducible by alcoholic beverages, plays an important role in this increase, because P-450 2E1 returned to normal levels in less than 3 days after ethanol withdrawal. Finally, in vivo and in vitro data demonstrated that P-450 2E1 and P-450 3A4, both inducible by alcohols, catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate. (+info)
(3/119) Melatonin decreases production of hydroxyl radical during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.
AIM: To study the effect of melatonin on hydroxyl radical (.OH) contents during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats. METHODS: Ischemia was induced by occluding left lateral middle cerebral artery for 30 min following reperfusion. The salicylate trapping method coupled with ipsilateral striatal microdialysis for measurement of hydroxyl radicals generated during ischemia and reperfusion. RESULTS: The contents of dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) were increased at 15 min after ischemia and remained high for 30 min after reperfusion. Melatonin (4 mg.kg-1, sc, 30 min before ischemia) decreased the production of DHBA during ischemia for 16-30 min and reperfusion for 1-30 min. CONCLUSION: Melatonin inhibits the production of hydroxyl radicals in rat brain during ischemia and reperfusion. (+info)
(4/119) Generation of reactive oxygen species by the faecal matrix.
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species are implicated in the aetiology of a range of human diseases and there is increasing interest in their role in the development of cancer. AIM: To develop a suitable method for the detection of reactive oxygen species produced by the faecal matrix. METHODS: A refined high performance liquid chromatography system for the detection of reactive oxygen species is described. RESULTS: The method allows baseline separation of the products of hydroxyl radical attack on salicylic acid in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system, namely 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol. The increased efficiency and precision of the method has allowed a detailed evaluation of the dynamics of reactive oxygen species generation in the faecal matrix. The data show that the faecal matrix is capable of generating reactive oxygen species in abundance. This ability cannot be attributed to the bacteria present, but rather to a soluble component within the matrix. As yet, the nature of this soluble factor is not entirely clear but is likely to be a reducing agent. CONCLUSIONS: The soluble nature of the promoting factor renders it amenable to absorption, and circumstances may exist in which either it comes into contact with either free or chelated iron in the colonocyte, leading to direct attack on cellular DNA, or else it initiates lipid peroxidation processes whereby membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids are attacked by reactive oxygen species propagating chain reactions leading to the generation of promutagenic lesions such as etheno based DNA adducts. (+info)
(5/119) Noncovalent association phenomena of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid with cyclic and linear oligosaccharides. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric and X-ray crystallographic study.
D-Glucose and 19 glucose derivatives were investigated by positive and negative ion matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) as the matrix. The set of substrates includes oligomers of amylose and cellulose, native alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin, and chemically modified beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins. These analytes were chosen to modulate molecular weight, polarity, and capability of establishing noncovalent interactions with guest molecules. In the negative-ion mode, the DHB matrix gave rise to charged multicomponent adducts of type [M + DHB - H]- (M = oligosaccharide) selectively for those analytes matching the following conditions: (i) underivatized chemical structure and (ii) number of glucose units > or = 4. In the positive-ion polarity, only some amylose and cellulose derivatives and methylated beta-cyclodextrins provided small amount of cationized adducts with the matrix of type [M + DHB + X]+ (X = Na or K), along with ubiquitous [M + X]+ ions. The results are discussed by taking into account analyte-matrix association phenomena, such as hydrogen bond and inclusion phenomena, as a function of the molecular structure of the analyte. The conclusions derived by mass spectrometric data are compared with the X-ray diffraction data obtained on a single crystal of the 1:1 alpha-cyclodextrin - DHB noncovalent adduct. (+info)
(6/119) The salicylate metabolite gentisic acid, but not the parent drug, inhibits glucose autoxidation-mediated atherogenic modification of low density lipoprotein.
Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by glucose-derived radicals may play a role in the aetiology of atherosclerosis in diabetes. Salicylate was shown to scavenge certain radicals. In the present study, aspirin, salicylate and its metabolites 2,5- and 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) were tested for their ability to impair LDL oxidation by glucose. Only the DHBA derivatives, when present during LDL modification, inhibited LDL oxidation and the increase in endothelial tissue factor synthesis induced by glucose oxidised LDL. The LDL glycation reaction was not affected by DHBA. The antioxidative action of DHBA may be attributed to free radical scavenging and/or chelation of transition metal ions catalysing glucose autoxidation. (+info)
(7/119) nag genes of Ralstonia (formerly Pseudomonas) sp. strain U2 encoding enzymes for gentisate catabolism.
Ralstonia sp. strain U2 metabolizes naphthalene via gentisate to central metabolites. We have cloned and sequenced a 21.6-kb region spanning the nag genes. Upstream of the pathway genes are nagY, homologous to chemotaxis proteins, and nagR, a regulatory gene of the LysR family. Divergently transcribed from nagR are the genes for conversion of naphthalene to gentisate (nagAaGHAbAcAdBFCQED) (S. L. Fuenmayor, M. Wild, A. L. Boyes, and P. A. Williams, J. Bacteriol. 180:2522-2530, 1998), which except for the insertion of nagGH, encoding the salicylate 5-hydroxylase, are homologous to and in the same order as the genes in the classical upper pathway operon described for conversion of naphthalene to salicylate found in the NAH7 plasmid of Pseudomonas putida PpG7. Downstream of nahD is a cluster of genes (nagJIKLMN) which are probably cotranscribed with nagAaGHAbAcAdBFCQED as a single large operon. By cloning into expression vectors and by biochemical assays, three of these genes (nagIKL) have been shown to encode the enzymes involved in the further catabolism of gentisate to fumarate and pyruvate. NagI is a gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase which converts gentisate to maleylpyruvate and is also able to catalyze the oxidation of some substituted gentisates. NagL is a reduced glutathione-dependent maleylpyruvate isomerase catalyzing the isomerization of maleylpyruvate to fumarylpyruvate. NagK is a fumarylpyruvate hydrolase which hydrolyzes fumarylpyruvate to fumarate and pyruvate. The three other genes (nagJMN) have also been cloned and overexpressed, but no biochemical activities have been attributed to them. NagJ is homologous to a glutathione S-transferase, and NagM and NagN are proteins homologous to each other and to other proteins of unknown function. Downstream of the operon is a partial sequence with homology to a transposase. (+info)
(8/119) Pathways for the degradation of m-cresol and p-cresol by Pseudomonas putida.
A comparison of the oxidation rates of various compounds by whole cells of Pseudomonas putida 3, 5 indicated that m-cresol is metabolized by oxidation to 3-hydroxybenzoate followed by hydroxylation to gentisate, the ring-fission substrate, when grown with 3, 5-xylenol. However, when m-cresol was the growth substrate, similar experiments suggested a different pathway involving a methyl-substituted catechol, and ring-fission by meta cleavage. Assays of ring-fission enzymes in cell-free extracts confirmed that different pathways are induced by the two growth substrates. 3, 5-Xylenol-grown cells contained high levels of gentisate oxygenase and only very small amounts of catechol oxygenase, whereas gentisate ocygenase could not be detected in m-cresol-grown cells, but levels of catechol oxygenase were greatly increased. Extracts of m-cresol-grown cells also contained 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and hydrolase, whose specificities enable them to metabolize the ring-fission products from catechol, 3-methylcatechol, and 4-methylcatechol. This catechol pathway is also used by m-cresol-grown cells for p-cresol metabolism. In contrast, the results for cells grown with p-cresol point to an alternative pathway involving oxidation to 4-hydroxybenzoate and hydrosylation to protocatechuate as ring-fission substrate. Extracts of these cells contained high levels of protocatechuate oxygenase and only small amounts of catechol oxygenase. (+info)