Analysis of flanking sequences from dissociation insertion lines: a database for reverse genetics in Arabidopsis.
We have generated Dissociation (Ds) element insertions throughout the Arabidopsis genome as a means of random mutagenesis. Here, we present the molecular analysis of genomic sequences that flank the Ds insertions of 931 independent transposant lines. Flanking sequences from 511 lines proved to be identical or homologous to DNA or protein sequences in public databases, and disruptions within known or putative genes were indicated for 354 lines. Because a significant portion (45%) of the insertions occurred within sequences defined by GenBank BAC and P1 clones, we were able to assess the distribution of Ds insertions throughout the genome. We discovered a significant preference for Ds transposition to the regions adjacent to nucleolus organizer regions on chromosomes 2 and 4. Otherwise, the mapped insertions appeared to be evenly dispersed throughout the genome. For any given gene, insertions preferentially occurred at the 5' end, although disruption was clearly possible at any intragenic position. The insertion sites of >500 lines that could be characterized by reference to public databases are presented in a tabular format at http://www.plantcell. org/cgi/content/full/11/12/2263/DC1. This database should be of value to researchers using reverse genetics approaches to determine gene function. (+info)
Microbial genomics: from sequence to function.
The era of genomics (the study of genes and their function) began a scant dozen years ago with a suggestion by James Watson that the complete DNA sequence of the human genome be determined. Since that time, the human genome project has attracted a great deal of attention in the scientific world and the general media; the scope of the sequencing effort, and the extraordinary value that it will provide, has served to mask the enormous progress in sequencing other genomes. Microbial genome sequencing, of particular interest to the community studying emerging infectious diseases, prompted the series of articles presented in the following pages. These articles review technological and scientific advances that have occurred since publication of the Haemophilus influenzae genome sequence in July 1995; that was the first demonstration that an entire genome sequence could be deciphered by a "shotgun" approach, i.e., the sequencing and assembly of random fragments of the genome. This is now the method of choice for sequencing of most other genomes, including human (as performed by Celera Genomics). (+info)
Genomics and bacterial pathogenesis.
Whole-genome sequencing is transforming the study of pathogenic bacteria. Searches for single virulence genes can now be performed on a genomewide scale by a variety of computer and genetic techniques. These techniques are discussed to provide a perspective on the developing field of genomics. (+info)
Comparative genomics and understanding of microbial biology.
The sequences of close to 30 microbial genomes have been completed during the past 5 years, and the sequences of more than 100 genomes should be completed in the next 2 to 4 years. Soon, completed microbial genome sequences will represent a collection of >200,000 predicted coding sequences. While analysis of a single genome provides tremendous biological insights on any given organism, comparative analysis of multiple genomes provides substantially more information on the physiology and evolution of microbial species and expands our ability to better assign putative function to predicted coding sequences. (+info)
Using DNA microarrays to study host-microbe interactions.
Complete genomic sequences of microbial pathogens and hosts offer sophisticated new strategies for studying host-pathogen interactions. DNA microarrays exploit primary sequence data to measure transcript levels and detect sequence polymorphisms, for every gene, simultaneously. The design and construction of a DNA microarray for any given microbial genome are straightforward. By monitoring microbial gene expression, one can predict the functions of uncharacterized genes, probe the physiologic adaptations made under various environmental conditions, identify virulence-associated genes, and test the effects of drugs. Similarly, by using host gene microarrays, one can explore host response at the level of gene expression and provide a molecular description of the events that follow infection. Host profiling might also identify gene expression signatures unique for each pathogen, thus providing a novel tool for diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical management of infectious disease. (+info)
Automatic detection of conserved gene clusters in multiple genomes by graph comparison and P-quasi grouping.
We previously reported two graph algorithms for analysis of genomic information: a graph comparison algorithm to detect locally similar regions called correlated clusters and an algorithm to find a graph feature called P-quasi complete linkage. Based on these algorithms we have developed an automatic procedure to detect conserved gene clusters and align orthologous gene orders in multiple genomes. In the first step, the graph comparison is applied to pairwise genome comparisons, where the genome is considered as a one-dimensionally connected graph with genes as its nodes, and correlated clusters of genes that share sequence similarities are identified. In the next step, the P-quasi complete linkage analysis is applied to grouping of related clusters and conserved gene clusters in multiple genomes are identified. In the last step, orthologous relations of genes are established among each conserved cluster. We analyzed 17 completely sequenced microbial genomes and obtained 2313 clusters when the completeness parameter P: was 40%. About one quarter contained at least two genes that appeared in the metabolic and regulatory pathways in the KEGG database. This collection of conserved gene clusters is used to refine and augment ortholog group tables in KEGG and also to define ortholog identifiers as an extension of EC numbers. (+info)
The gene guessing game.
A recent flurry of publications and media attention has revived interest in the question of how many genes exist in the human genome. Here, I review the estimates and use genomic sequence data from human chromosomes 21 and 22 to establish my own prediction. (+info)
Featured organism: Danio rerio, the zebrafish.
The zebrafish has long been a favourite model for the study of vertebrate development. Here we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge and resources for the study of this fish, with comments on the future direction of zebrafish genomics from Professor Mark Fishman and Dr Stephen Wilson. (+info)