Leishmania major Friedlin chromosome 1 has an unusual distribution of protein-coding genes.
Leishmania are evolutionarily ancient protozoans (Kinetoplastidae) and important human pathogens that cause a spectrum of diseases ranging from the asymptomatic to the lethal. The Leishmania genome is relatively small [ approximately 34 megabases (Mb)], lacks substantial repetitive DNA, and is distributed among 36 chromosomes pairs ranging in size from 0.3 Mb to 2.5 Mb, making it a useful candidate for complete genome sequence determination. We report here the nucleotide sequence of the smallest chromosome, chr1. The sequence of chr1 has a 257-kilobase region that is densely packed with 79 protein-coding genes. This region is flanked by telomeric and subtelomeric repetitive elements that vary in number and content among the chr1 homologs, resulting in an approximately 27.5-kilobase size difference. Strikingly, the first 29 genes are all encoded on one DNA strand, whereas the remaining 50 genes are encoded on the opposite strand. Based on the gene density of chr1, we predict a total of approximately 9,800 genes in Leishmania, of which 40% may encode unknown proteins. (+info)
The TATA-box binding protein of Entamoeba histolytica: cloning of the gene and location of the protein by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy.
A 309 bp DNA fragment from Entamoeba histolytica was amplified by PCR using primers derived from the Acanthamoeba castellanii consensus TATA-box binding protein amino acid sequence. The amplified fragment was used to isolate cDNA and genomic DNA clones containing an ORF encoding the complete E. histolytica TATA-box binding protein (Ehtbp, 702 bp, 234 aa, molecular mass 26 kDa). The EhTBP functional domain showed 55% sequence identity to that of Homo sapiens, 54% to A. castellanii and 37% to Plasmodium falciparum TBPs. In Southern blot experiments we detected a single Ehtbp band, which was transcribed as a 1.3 kb mRNA containing a 420 nt 5' untranslated region. However, the probe hybridized with the 0.8 and 1.5 Mb chromosomes, suggesting that this sequence is diploid. In situ PCR assays showed two signals in 95% of trophozoites, one located in the nucleus and another in EhkO, the novel DNA-containing organelle recently reported. The recombinant E. histolytica TATA-box binding protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. Antibodies against it recognized two proteins of 26 and 29 kDa in E. histolytica nuclear extracts. Confocal microscopy immunofluorescence analysis located the protein in both the nucleus and EhkO. (+info)
High conservation of the fine-scale organisation of chromosome 5 between two pathogenic Leishmania species.
In a previous work we showed a remarkable conservation of the general structure of the genome (chromo-some number and synteny) among different pathogenic species of Old World Leishmania, indicating the absence of major interchromosomal rearrangements during evolution. In the present study, we have compared the fine structure of chromo-some 5 among two of these divergent species (Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum) by means of physical mapping. Remarkably, the 42 markers jointly mapped on these two chromosomes were found in an identical order along the chromosome. This perfect colinearity of the markers is in striking contrast to the large genetic distance that separates these species and suggests that conservation of the fine-scale organisation of chromosomes may be critical in Leishmania. If this colinearity is confirmed on the whole of the chromosome set, the current systematic sequencing programme of the genome of L.major should greatly help in the development of comparative genetics between different species of Leishmania. (+info)
Protective immune responses induced by vaccination with an expression genomic library of Leishmania major.
To develop an effective vaccine against the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania spp., we investigated the feasibility of expression library immunization (ELI) in the mouse. Genomic expression libraries of L. major were constructed and used to immunize mice. One of the three libraries (L1, with 10(5) clones) induced a significant protective immune response and delayed the onset of lesion development in highly susceptible BALB/c mice after i.m. immunization, compared with control mice immunized with the empty vector (EV). L1 was then divided into five sublibraries of approximately 2 x 10(4) clones each. Mice immunized with one of the sublibraries (SL1A) developed an even stronger protective effect than that induced by L1. SL1A was further divided into 20 sublibraries (SL2) of approximately 10(3) clones each. One of the SL2 libraries (SL2G) induced a strong protective effect against L. major infection. In direct comparative studies, the protective effect of the sublibraries was in the order of SL2G > SL1A > L1. Lymphoid cells from mice vaccinated with SL2G produced more IFN-gamma and NO, compared with cells from control mice injected with EV. Serum from the vaccinated mice also contained more parasite-specific IgG2a Ab, compared with controls. Therefore, these data demonstrate that ELI is feasible against this complex intracellular parasitic infection, by preferentially inducing the development of Th1 responses. Furthermore, by sequential division of the libraries, this approach may be used to enrich and identify protective genes for effective gene vaccination against other parasitic infections. (+info)
A random survey of the Cryptosporidium parvum genome.
Cryptosporidium parvum is an obligate intracellular pathogen responsible for widespread infections in humans and animals. The inability to obtain purified samples of this organism's various developmental stages has limited the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms important for C. parvum development or host-parasite interaction. To identify C. parvum genes independent of their developmental expression, a random sequence analysis of the 10.4-megabase genome of C. parvum was undertaken. Total genomic DNA was sheared by nebulization, and fragments between 800 and 1,500 bp were gel purified and cloned into a plasmid vector. A total of 442 clones were randomly selected and subjected to automated sequencing by using one or two primers flanking the cloning site. In this way, 654 genomic survey sequences (GSSs) were generated, corresponding to >320 kb of genomic sequence. These sequences were assembled into 408 contigs containing >250 kb of unique sequence, representing approximately 2.5% of the C. parvum genome. Comparison of the GSSs with sequences in the public DNA and protein databases revealed that 107 contigs (26%) displayed similarity to previously identified proteins and rRNA and tRNA genes. These included putative genes involved in the glycolytic pathway, DNA, RNA, and protein metabolism, and signal transduction pathways. The repetitive sequence elements identified included a telomere-like sequence containing hexamer repeats, 57 microsatellite-like elements composed of dinucleotide or trinucleotide repeats, and a direct repeat sequence. This study demonstrates that large-scale genomic sequencing is an efficient approach to analyze the organizational characteristics and information content of the C. parvum genome. (+info)
Parasite populations: the puzzle of Plasmodium.
The issue of whether the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is effectively clonal, as some argue, or undergoes outcrossing at a high rate, as many others believe, has been controversial. Recent data support the latter view, though no doubt the puzzle has not yet been laid to rest. (+info)
A genetic map and recombination parameters of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.
Genetic investigations of malaria require a genome-wide, high-resolution linkage map of Plasmodium falciparum. A genetic cross was used to construct such a map from 901 markers that fall into 14 inferred linkage groups corresponding to the 14 nuclear chromosomes. Meiotic crossover activity in the genome proved high (17 kilobases per centimorgan) and notably uniform over chromosome length. Gene conversion events and spontaneous microsatellite length changes were evident in the inheritance data. The markers, map, and recombination parameters are facilitating genome sequence assembly, localization of determinants for such traits as virulence and drug resistance, and genetic studies of parasite field populations. (+info)
EMGLib: the enhanced microbial genomes library (update 2000).
As the number of complete microbial genomes publicly available is still growing, the problem of annotation quality in these very large sequences remains unsolved. Indeed, the number of annotations associated with complete genomes is usually lower than those of the shorter entries encountered in the repository collections. Moreover, classical sequence database management systems have difficulties in handling entries of such size. In this context, the Enhanced Microbial Genomes Library (EMGLib) was developed to try to alleviate these problems. This library contains all the complete genomes from prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) already sequenced and the yeast genome in GenBank format. The annotations are improved by the introduction of data on codon usage, gene orientation on the chromosome and gene families. It is possible to access EMGLib through two database systems set up on WWW servers: the PBIL server at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/emglib.html and the MICADO server at http://locus.jouy.inra.fr/micado (+info)