(1/60) Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vif gene in long-term asymptomatic individuals.

We have determined the sequence of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vif genes from a cohort of 42 long-term nonprogressors (LTNP) and compared these sequences to those of 8 late progressors. The coding potential of the vif open reading frame directly derived by nested PCR from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA was conserved in all 50 individuals. The nucleotide distances between vif sequences were not significantly different between LTNP and late progressors, indicating similar selections of viruses within both types of long-term HIV-1-infected subjects. However, a statistically significant correlation between an amino acid signature at position 132 of Vif and the viral load was found within LTNP. Namely, amino acid Ser was associated with low viral load and amino acid Arg with high viral load. This signature was also observed when LTNP with low viral load were compared to progressors. The Ser132 signature was introduced in place of Arg132 present in the HIV-1 YU-2 Vif prototype into chimeric viruses to assess the impact of Vif signature on the virus. While the replication properties in the SupT1 cell line were unmodified, the mutagenized virus revealed a fivefold decreased replication in activated PBMC, suggesting a possible role of this Vif signature for viral production in vivo.  (+info)

(2/60) Characterization of three nef-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains associated with long-term nonprogression. Australian Long-Term Nonprogressor Study Group.

Long-term survivors (LTS) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection provide an opportunity to investigate both viral and host factors that influence the rate of disease progression. We have identified three HIV-1-infected individuals in Australia who have been infected for over 11 years with viruses that contain deletions in the nef and nef-long terminal repeat (nef/LTR) overlap regions. These viruses differ from each other and from other nef-defective strains of HIV-1 previously identified in Australia. One individual, LTS 3, is infected with a virus containing a nef gene with a deletion of 29 bp from the nef/LTR overlap region, resulting in a truncated Nef open reading frame. In addition to the Nef defect, only viruses containing truncated Vif open reading frames of 37 or 69 amino acids could be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from this patient. LTS 3 had a viral load of less than 20 copies of RNA/ml of plasma. The other two long-term survivors, LTS 9 and LTS 11, had loads of less than 200 copies of RNA/ml of plasma and are infected with viruses with larger deletions in both the nef alone and nef/LTR overlap regions. These viruses contain wild-type vif, vpu, and vpr accessory genes. All three strains of virus had envelope sequences characteristic of macrophagetropic viruses. These findings further indicate the reduced pathogenic potential of nef-defective viruses.  (+info)

(3/60) The tyrosine kinase Hck is an inhibitor of HIV-1 replication counteracted by the viral vif protein.

The virus infectivity factor (Vif) protein facilitates the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in primary lymphocytes and macrophages. Its action is strongly dependent on the cellular environment, and it has been proposed that the Vif protein counteracts cellular activities that would otherwise limit HIV-1 replication. Using a glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay, we identified that Vif binds specifically to the Src homology 3 domain of Hck, a tyrosine kinase from the Src family. The interaction between Vif and the full-length Hck was further assessed by co-precipitation assays in vitro and in human cells. The Vif protein repressed the kinase activity of Hck and was not itself a substrate for Hck phosphorylation. Within one single replication cycle of HIV-1, Hck was able to inhibit the production and the infectivity of vif-deleted virus but not that of wild-type virus. Accordingly, HIV-1 vif- replication was delayed in Jurkat T cell clones stably expressing Hck. Our data demonstrate that Hck controls negatively HIV-1 replication and that this inhibition is suppressed by the expression of Vif. Hck, which is present in monocyte-macrophage cells, represents the first identified cellular inhibitor of HIV-1 replication overcome by Vif.  (+info)

(4/60) Single-cycle immunodeficiency viruses provide strategies for uncoupling in vivo expression levels from viral replicative capacity and for mimicking live-attenuated SIV vaccines.

To reduce the risks associated with live-attenuated immunodeficiency virus vaccines, single-cycle immunodeficiency viruses (SCIVs) were developed by primer complementation and production of the vaccine in the absence of vif in a vif-independent cell line. After a single intravenous injection of SCIVs into rhesus monkeys, peak viral RNA levels of 10(3) to 10(4) copies/ml plasma were observed, indicating efficient expression of SCIV in the vaccinee. After booster immunizations with SCIVs, SIV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses were observed. Although the vaccine doses used in this pilot study could not protect vaccinees from subsequent intravenous challenge with pathogenic SIVmac239, our results demonstrate that the novel SCIV approach allows us to uncouple in vivo expression levels from the viral replicative capacity facilitating the analysis of the relationship between viral expression levels or viral genes and immune responses induced by SIV.  (+info)

(5/60) Role of vif in replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes.

The viral infectivity factor gene vif of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has been shown to affect the infectivity but not the production of virus particles. In this study, the effect of vif in the context of the HXB2 virus on virus replication in several CD4+ T-cell lines was investigated. vif was found to be required for replication in the CD4+ T-cell lines CEM and H9 as well as in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. vif was not required for replication in the SupT1, C8166, and Jurkat T-cell lines. The infectivity of vif-defective viruses depended on the cell type in which the virus was produced. In CEM cells, vif was required for production of virus capable of initiating infection in all cell lines studied. vif-defective virus produced by SupT1, C8166, and Jurkat cells and the monkey cell line COS-1 could initiate infection in multiple cell lines, including CEM and H9. These results suggest that vif can compensate for cellular factors required for production of infectious virus particles that are present in some cell lines such as SupT1, C8166, and Jurkat but are absent in others such as CEM and H9 as well as peripheral blood T lymphocytes. The effect of vif was not altered by deletion of the carboxyl terminus of gp41, a proposed target for vif (B. Guy, M. Geist, K. Dott, D. Spehner, M.-P. Kieny, and J.-P. Lecocq, J. Virol. 65:1325-1331, 1991). These studies demonstrate that vif enhances viral infectivity during virus production and also suggest that vif is likely to be important for natural infections.  (+info)

(6/60) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif supports efficient primate lentivirus replication in rhesus monkey cells.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Vif share limited homology and display species-specific activity, leading to speculation that Vif sequences could determine the block in HIV-1 replication in rhesus monkeys. To address this issue, we engineered a novel SIV recombinant in which HIV-1 vif replaced SIV vif in a SIVmac239 background. Insertion of HIV-1 vif into the SIV vif locus did not produce a replication-competent virus. Therefore, we inserted HIV-1 vif sequences into the SIV nef locus, which produced a recombinant that, in the absence of SIV vif sequences, replicated similarly to wild-type SIVmac239 in rhesus monkey PBMC. From these studies we conclude that the HIV-1 replication block in rhesus monkeys is almost certainly not Vif determined. These studies also suggest that SHIV/NVif or derivative sequences could be utilized for structure/function studies of HIV-1 Vif in experimentally infected rhesus monkeys.  (+info)

(7/60) APOBEC3F properties and hypermutation preferences indicate activity against HIV-1 in vivo.

APOBEC3G (CEM15 ) deaminates cytosine to uracil in nascent retroviral cDNA. The potency of this cellular defense is evidenced by a dramatic reduction in viral infectivity and the occurrence of high frequencies of retroviral genomic-strand G --> A transition mutations. The overwhelming dinucleotide hypermutation preference of APOBEC3G acting upon a variety of model retroviral substrates is 5'-GG --> -AG. However, a distinct 5'-GA --> -AA bias, which is difficult to attribute to APOBEC3G alone, prevails in HIV-1 sequences derived from infected individuals (e.g., ). Here, we show that APOBEC3F is also a potent retroviral restrictor but that its activity, unlike that of APOBEC3G, is partially resistant to HIV-1 Vif and results in a clear 5'-GA --> -AA retroviral hypermutation preference. This bias is also apparent in a bacterial mutation assay, suggesting that it is an intrinsic APOBEC3F property. Moreover, APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G appear to be coordinately expressed in a wide range of human tissues and are independently able to inhibit retroviral infection. Thus, APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G are likely to function alongside one another in the provision of an innate immune defense, with APOBEC3F functioning as the major contributor to HIV-1 hypermutation in vivo.  (+info)

(8/60) Cytidine deamination of retroviral DNA by diverse APOBEC proteins.

The human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G edits both nascent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) reverse transcripts, resulting in loss of infectivity. The HIV Vif protein is able to protect both viruses from this innate restriction to infection. Here, we demonstrate that a number of other APOBEC family members from both humans and rodents can mediate anti-HIV effects, through cytidine deamination. Three of these, rat APOBEC1, mouse APOBEC3, and human APOBEC3B, are able to inhibit HIV infectivity even in the presence of Vif. Like APOBEC3G, human APOBEC3F preferentially restricts vif-deficient virus. Indeed, the mutation spectra and expression profile found for APOBEC3F indicate that this enzyme, together with APOBEC3G, accounts for the G to A hypermutation of proviruses described in HIV-infected individuals. Surprisingly, although MLV infectivity is acutely reduced by APOBEC3G, no other family member tested here had this effect. It is especially interesting that although both rodent APOBECs markedly diminish wild-type HIV infectivity, MLV is resistant to these proteins. This implies that MLV may have evolved to avoid deamination by mouse APOBEC3. Overall, our findings show that although APOBEC family members are highly related, they exhibit significantly distinct antiviral characteristics that may provide new insights into host-pathogen interactions.  (+info)