Survival in familial, BRCA1-associated, and BRCA2-associated epithelial ovarian cancer. United Kingdom Coordinating Committee for Cancer Research (UKCCCR) Familial Ovarian Cancer Study Group. (1/1436)

The natural history of hereditary and BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated epithelial ovarian cancer may differ from that of sporadic disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated hereditary ovarian cancer, hereditary ovarian cancer with no identified BRCA1/2 mutation, and ovarian cancer in population-based controls. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing was carried out on index cases from 119 families with site-specific epithelial ovarian cancer or breast-ovarian cancer. We estimated overall survival in 151 patients from 57 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation families and compared it with that in 119 patients from 62 families in which a BRCA1/2 mutation was not identified. We compared clinical outcome and data on tumor histopathology, grade, and stage. We also compared survival in familial epithelial ovarian cancer, whether or not a mutation was identified, with that of an age-matched set of population control cases. Overall survival at 5 years was 21% (95% confidence interval, 14-28) in cases from BRCA1 mutation families, 25% (8-42) in BRCA2 mutation families, and 19% (12-26) in families with no identified mutation (P = 0.91). Survival in familial ovarian cancer cases as a whole was significantly worse than for population controls (P = 0.005). In the familial cases, we found no differences in histopathological type, grade, or stage according to mutation status. Compared to population control cases, mucinous tumors occurred less frequently in the familial cases (2 versus 12%, P<0.001), and a greater proportion of the familial cases presented with advanced disease (83% stage III/IV versus 56%; P = 0.001). We have shown that survival in familial ovarian cancer cases is worse than that in sporadic cases, whether or not a BRCA1/2 mutation was identified, perhaps reflecting a difference in biology analogous to that observed in breast cancer.  (+info)

Survival after breast cancer in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. (2/1436)

BACKGROUND: Studies of survival following breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers have yielded conflicting results. We undertook an analysis of a community-based study of Ashkenazi Jews to investigate the effect of three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 on survival among patients with breast or ovarian cancer. METHODS: We collected blood samples and questionnaire data from 5318 Ashkenazi Jewish volunteers. The blood samples were tested for 185delAG (two nucleotide deletion) and 5382insC (single nucleotide insertion) mutations in BRCA1 and the 6174delT (single nucleotide deletion) mutation in BRCA2. To estimate survival differences in the affected relatives according to their BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carrier status, we devised and applied a novel extension of the kin-cohort method. RESULTS: Fifty mutation carriers reported that 58 of their first-degree relatives had been diagnosed with breast cancer and 10 with ovarian cancer; 907 noncarriers reported 979 first-degree relatives with breast cancer and 116 with ovarian cancer. Kaplan-Meier estimates of median survival after breast cancer were 16 years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11-40) in the relatives of carriers and 18 years (95% CI = 15-22) in the relatives of noncarriers, a difference that was not statistically significant (two-sided P = .87). There was also no difference in survival times among the 126 first-degree relatives with ovarian cancer. We found no survival difference between patients with breast or ovarian cancer who were inferred carriers of BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations and noncarriers. CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations appeared to have neither better nor worse survival prognosis.  (+info)

Association between nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation and BRCA1 mutation in germline DNA of patients with ovarian cancer. (3/1436)

BACKGROUND: Most human female cells contain two X chromosomes, only one of which is active. The process of X-chromosome inactivation, which occurs early in development, is usually random, producing tissues with equal mixtures of cells having active X chromosomes of either maternal or paternal origin. However, nonrandom inactivation may occur in a subset of females. If a tumor suppressor gene were located on the X chromosome and if females with a germline mutation in one copy of that suppressor gene experienced nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation, then some or all of the tissues of such women might lack the wild-type suppressor gene function. This scenario could represent a previously unrecognized mechanism for development of hereditary cancers. We investigated whether such a mechanism might contribute to the development of hereditary ovarian cancers. METHODS: Patterns of X-chromosome inactivation were determined by means of polymerase chain reaction amplification of the CAG-nucleotide repeat of the androgen receptor (AR) gene after methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease digestion of blood mononuclear cell DNA from patients with invasive (n = 213) or borderline (n = 44) ovarian cancer and control subjects without a personal or family history of cancer (n = 50). BRCA1 gene status was determined by means of single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals informative for the AR locus, nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation was found in the DNA of 53% of those with invasive cancer versus 28% of those with borderline cancer (P = .005) and 33% of healthy control subjects (P = .016). Nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation can be a heritable trait. Nine of 11 AR-informative carriers of germline BRCA1 mutations demonstrated nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation (.0002 < P < .008, for simultaneous occurrence of both). IMPLICATIONS: Nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation may be a predisposing factor for the development of invasive, but not borderline, ovarian cancer.  (+info)

Exclusion of a major role for the PTEN tumour-suppressor gene in breast carcinomas. (4/1436)

PTEN is a novel tumour-suppressor gene located on chromosomal band 10q23.3. This region displays frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a variety of human neoplasms including breast carcinomas. The detection of PTEN mutations in Cowden disease and in breast carcinoma cell lines suggests that PTEN may be involved in mammary carcinogenesis. We here report a mutational analysis of tumour specimens from 103 primary breast carcinomas and constitutive DNA from 25 breast cancer families. The entire coding region of PTEN was screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing using intron-based primers. No germline mutations could be identified in the breast cancer families and only one sporadic carcinoma carried a PTEN mutation at one allele. In addition, all sporadic tumours were analysed for homozygous deletions by differential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for allelic loss using the microsatellite markers D10S215, D10S564 and D10S573. No homozygous deletions were detected and only 10 out of 94 informative tumours showed allelic loss in the PTEN region. These results suggest that PTEN does not play a major role in breast cancer formation.  (+info)

Identification of a C/G polymorphism in the promoter region of the BRCA1 gene and its use as a marker for rapid detection of promoter deletions. (5/1436)

Reduced expression of BRCA1 has been implicated in sporadic breast cancer, although the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. To determine whether regulatory mutations could account for the reduced expression, we screened the promoter region by sequencing in 20 patients with sporadic disease. No mutations were detected; however, a new polymorphism consisting of a C-to-G base change within the beta-promoter was identified, with the frequency of the G allele being 0.34. Close to complete linkage disequilibrium was found between this marker and the Pro871 Leu polymorphism, situated in exon 11, which has previously been shown not to be associated with breast or ovarian cancer. This indicates that the C/G polymorphism is also unlikely to play a role in either disease. However, the strength of linkage disequilibrium between these markers permitted their use for rapid screening for genomic deletions within BRCA1. A series of 214 cases with familial breast cancer were analysed using this approach; 88/214 were heterozygous for the promoter polymorphism, thereby excluding a deletion in this region. Among the remaining patients, one hemizygous case reflecting a promoter deletion was successfully identified. Therefore, this study indicates that deletions within the beta-promoter region of BRCA1 are an uncommon event in familial breast cancer. Furthermore, it suggests that mutations within the BRCA1 promoter are unlikely to account for the reported decreased expression of BRCA1 in sporadic disease.  (+info)

Frequency of p53 mutations in breast carcinomas from Ashkenazi Jewish carriers of BRCA1 mutations. (6/1436)

BACKGROUND: Breast carcinomas occurring in carriers of BRCA1 gene mutations may have a distinctly different pathway of molecular pathogenesis from those occurring in noncarriers. Data from murine models implicate loss of p53 (also known as TP53) gene function as a critical early event in the malignant transformation of cells with a BRCA1 mutation. Therefore, breast tumors from BRCA1 mutation carriers might be expected to exhibit a high frequency of p53 mutations. This study examined the frequency of p53 mutations in the breast tumors of Ashkenazi Jewish carriers and noncarriers of BRCA1 mutations. METHODS: Tumor DNA from carriers and noncarriers of BRCA1 mutations was screened for mutations in exons 4 through 10 of the p53 gene by use of the polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the amplified DNA. Direct sequencing was performed on gene fragments that showed altered mobility in SSCP analysis. RESULTS: Mutations in the p53 gene were detected in 10 of 13 tumors from BRCA1 mutation carriers versus 10 of 33 tumors from non-carriers (two-sided P = .007). The p53 mutations were distributed throughout exons 4 through 10 and included both protein-truncating and missense mutations in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: A statistically significantly higher frequency of p53 mutations was found in breast tumors from carriers of BRCA1 mutations than from noncarriers, which adds to the accumulating evidence that loss of p53 function is an important step in the molecular pathogenesis of BRCA1 mutation-associated breast tumors. This finding may have implications for understanding phenotypic differences and potential prognostic differences between BRCA1 mutation-associated hereditary breast cancers and sporadic cancers.  (+info)

High frequency of germ-line BRCA2 mutations among Hungarian male breast cancer patients without family history. (7/1436)

To determine the contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations to the pathogenesis of male breast cancer in Hungary, the country with the highest male breast cancer mortality rates in continental Europe, a series of 18 male breast cancer patients and three patients with gynecomastia was analyzed for germ-line mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2. Although no germ-line BRCA1 mutation was observed, 6 of the 18 male breast cancer cases (33%) carried truncating mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Unexpectedly, none of them reported a family history for breast/ovarian cancer. Four of six truncating mutations were novel, and two mutations were recurrent. Four patients (22%) had a family history of breast/ovarian cancer in at least one first- or second-degree relative; however, no BRCA2 mutation was identified among them. No mutation was identified in either of the genes in the gynecomastias. These results provide evidence for a strong genetic component of male breast cancer in Hungary.  (+info)

Attitudes, knowledge, and risk perceptions of women with breast and/or ovarian cancer considering testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. (8/1436)

PURPOSE: This study examined baseline knowledge, beliefs, and risk perceptions among a group of 200 women with breast and/or ovarian cancer who participated in a trial designed to improve decision making about genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women were identified by self-referral, physician referral, and tumor registry extraction and invited to participate in a randomized trial in which testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was offered free of charge. Subjects completed baseline questionnaires and interviews that assessed knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of risk of having an alteration in BRCA1 or BRCA2. RESULTS: Sixty percent of women overestimated their chances of having a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation compared with estimates from a BRCA1/BRCA2 risk model. Women who have at least three relatives with breast or ovarian cancer were one third (95% confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.6) as likely to overestimate their risk of having a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation compared with women who have two or fewer affected relatives. Knowledge was limited about BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and cancer risk associated with gene mutations. Eighty-four percent of the women indicated a probable or definite interest in testing. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of the high-risk women in this study had knowledge deficits about BRCA1 and BRCA2 and overestimated their risk of having a mutation. Although some degree of caution should be used in generalizing the results of this study to practice settings, the data provide insight into the challenges clinicians will face in communicating with patients about cancer genetics.  (+info)