A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer.
A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction. (+info)
Horizontal gene transfer among genomes: the complexity hypothesis.
Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between prokaryotes. Extensive horizontal transfer has occurred for operational genes (those involved in housekeeping), whereas informational genes (those involved in transcription, translation, and related processes) are seldomly horizontally transferred. Through phylogenetic analysis of six complete prokaryotic genomes and the identification of 312 sets of orthologous genes present in all six genomes, we tested two theories describing the temporal flow of horizontal transfer. We show that operational genes have been horizontally transferred continuously since the divergence of the prokaryotes, rather than having been exchanged in one, or a few, massive events that occurred early in the evolution of prokaryotes. In agreement with earlier studies, we found that differences in rates of evolution between operational and informational genes are minimal, suggesting that factors other than rate of evolution are responsible for the observed differences in horizontal transfer. We propose that a major factor in the more frequent horizontal transfer of operational genes is that informational genes are typically members of large, complex systems, whereas operational genes are not, thereby making horizontal transfer of informational gene products less probable (the complexity hypothesis). (+info)
Genetic diversity of the streptococcal competence (com) gene locus.
The com operon of naturally transformable streptococcal species contains three genes, comC, comD, and comE, involved in the regulation of competence. The comC gene encodes a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) thought to induce competence in the bacterial population at a critical extracellular concentration. The comD and comE genes are believed to encode the transmembrane histidine kinase and response regulator proteins, respectively, of a two-component regulator, with the comD-encoded protein being a receptor for CSP. Here we report on the genetic variability of comC and comD within Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. Comparative analysis of sequence variations of comC and comD shows that, despite evidence for horizontal gene transfer at this locus and the lack of transformability of many S. pneumoniae strains in the laboratory, there is a clear correlation between the presence of a particular comC allele and the cognate comD allele. These findings effectively rule out the possibility that the presence of noncognate comC and comD alleles may be responsible for the inability to induce competence in many isolates and indicate the importance of a functional com pathway in these isolates. In addition, we describe a number of novel CSPs from disease-associated strains of S. mitis and S. oralis. The CSPs from these isolates are much more closely related to those from S. pneumoniae than to most CSPs previously reported from S. mitis and S. oralis, suggesting that these particular organisms may be a potential source of DNA in recombination events generating the mosaic structures commonly reported in genes of S. pneumoniae that are under strong selective pressure. (+info)
Comparison of the evolutionary dynamics of symbiotic and housekeeping loci: a case for the genetic coherence of rhizobial lineages.
In prokaryotes, lateral gene transfer across chromosomal lineages may be mediated by plasmids, phages, transposable elements, and other accessory DNA elements. However, the importance of such transfer and the evolutionary forces that may restrict gene exchange remain largely unexplored in native settings. In this study, tests of phylogenetic congruence are employed to explore the range of horizontal transfer of symbiotic (sym) loci among distinct chromosomal lineages of native rhizobia, the nitrogen-fixing symbiont of legumes. Rhizobial strains isolated from nodules of several host plant genera were sequenced at three loci: symbiotic nodulation genes (nodB and nodC), the chromosomal housekeeping locus glutamine synthetase II (GSII), and a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that each locus generally subdivides strains into the same major groups, which correspond to the genera Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, and Mesorhizobium. This broad phylogenetic congruence indicates a lack of lateral transfer across major chromosomal subdivisions, and it contrasts with previous studies of agricultural populations showing broad transfer of sym loci across divergent chromosomal lineages. A general correspondence of the three rhizobial genera with major legume groups suggests that host plant associations may be important in the differentiation of rhizobial nod and chromosomal loci and may restrict lateral transfer among strains. The second major result is a significant incongruence of nod and GSII phylogenies within rhizobial subdivisions, which strongly suggests horizontal transfer of nod genes among congenerics. This combined evidence for lateral gene transfer within, but not between, genetic subdivisions supports the view that rhizobial genera are "reproductively isolated" and diverge independently. Differences across rhizobial genera in the specificity of host associations imply that the evolutionary dynamics of the symbiosis vary considerably across lineages in native settings. (+info)
Structural characteristics and possible horizontal transfer of group I introns between closely related plant pathogenic fungi.
We have characterized structural features and the distribution pattern of nuclear group I introns found in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of closely related plant pathogenic fungi of the family Sclerotiniaceae. Sixteen introns, at two distinct positions in the small-subunit (SSU) and large-subunit (LSU) rDNA, were sequenced and analyzed among the 29 taxa included in the initial screening. Genera found to contain introns were Botrytis, Dumontinia, Encoelia, Grovesinia, Myriosclerotinia, and Sclerotinia. Secondary-structure analyses of the group I introns concluded that all belong to the common IC1 subclass. Interestingly, the SSU rDNA intron from Myriosclerotinia caricisampullacea contains an insertion-like sequence extension which may be a relic of an open reading frame. Incongruent branching patterns of intron-based and rDNA-based (internal transcribed spacer) phylogenetic trees suggest that the fungal host genomes and the group I introns do not share a common evolutionary history. A model to explain how horizontal intron transfers may have occurred among the closely related fungal taxa is proposed. (+info)
Horizontal transfer of DNA by the uptake of apoptotic bodies.
In this study we have raised the question of whether DNA can be transferred from one cell to another by phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies. We have used integrated copies of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a marker to follow the fate and expression pattern of apoptotic DNA in the phagocytotic host. Apoptosis was induced in EBV-carrying cell lines by irradiation before cultivation with either human fibroblasts, macrophages, or bovine aortic endothelial cells. Analysis of the expression pattern of EBV-encoded genes was performed by immunofluorescent staining as well as in situ hybridization. Cocultivation of apoptotic bodies from lymphoid cell lines containing integrated but not episomal copies of EBV resulted in expression of the EBV-encoded genes EBER and EBNA1 in the recipient cells at a high frequency. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed uptake of human chromatin as well as integrated EBV-DNA into the nuclei of bovine aortic endothelial cells. These data show that DNA may be rescued and reused from apoptotic bodies by somatic cells. In addition, our findings suggest that apoptotic bodies derived from EBV-carrying B lymphocytes may serve as the source of viral transfer to cells that lack receptors for the EBV virus in vivo. (+info)
A comparison of the kinetics of plasmid transfer in the conjugation systems encoded by the F plasmid from Escherichia coli and plasmid pCF10 from Enterococcus faecalis.
Quantitative measurements of horizontal DNA transfer are critical if one wishes to address questions relating to ecology, evolution and the safe use of recombinant bacteria. Traditionally, the efficiency of a conjugation system has been described by its transfer frequency. However, transfer frequencies can be determined in many ways and may be sensitive to physical, chemical and biological conditions. In this study the authors have used the mechanistic similarity between bacterial conjugation and simple enzyme catalysis in order to calculate the maximal conjugation rate (Vmax) and the recipient concentration (K(m)) at which the conjugation rate is half its maximal value, for two different conjugation systems: the F plasmid from Escherichia coli and plasmid pCF10 from Enterococcus faecalis. The results are compared with the data obtained from the aggregation-mediated conjugation system encoded on pXO16 from Bacillus thuringiensis. The conjugation systems analysed are fundamentally different; however, they have some characteristics in common: they are able to sustain conjugative transfer in liquid medium and the transfer efficiencies are very high. Conjugation encoded by the F plasmid in E. coli involves the formation of small aggregates (2-20 cells), established by sex pili, and the plasmid's maximal conjugation rate was estimated to be approximately 0.15 transconjugants per donor per minute. Pheromone-induced conjugation in Ent. faecalis, which involves the formation of large aggregates, was found to proceed at a maximal conjugation rate of 0.29 transconjugants per donor per minute. Also, the K(m) value differed significantly between these conjugation systems; this may reflect the inherent differences in mating pair formation and transfer mechanisms. In these conjugation systems, the donors underwent a 'recovery period' between rounds of conjugative transfer and newly formed transconjugants required a period of about 40-80 min to mature into proficient donors. (+info)
Horizontal gene transfer in glycosyl hydrolases inferred from codon usage in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.
Glycosyl hydrolase (GH) genes from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were used to search for cases of horizontal gene transfer. Such an event was inferred by G + C content, codon usage analysis, and a phylogenetic congruency test. The codon usage analysis used is a procedure based on a distance derived from a Pearson linear correlation coefficient determined from a pairwise codon usage comparison. The distances are then used to generate a distance-based tree with which we can define clusters and rapidly compare codon usage. Three genes (yagH from E. coli and xynA and xynB from B. subtilis) were determined to have arrived by horizontal gene transfer and were located in E. coli CP4-6 prophage, and B. subtilis prophages 6 and 5, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that with codon usage analysis, the proposed horizontally transferred genes can be distinguished from highly expressed genes. (+info)