Interaction of Gli2 with CREB protein on DNA elements in the long terminal repeat of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 is responsible for transcriptional activation by tax protein.
The long terminal repeat (LTR) of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has two distinct DNA elements, one copy of TRE2S and three copies of a 21-bp sequence that respond to the viral trans-activator protein, Tax. Either multiple copies of the 21-bp sequence or a combination of one copy each of TRE2S and 21-bp sequence is required for efficient trans activation by Tax. In the trans activation of multiple copies of 21-bp sequence, CREB/ATF protein plays an essential role in forming a complex with Tax. To understand the role of TRE2S in trans activation of one copy of 21-bp sequence, we examined protein binding to the DNA elements by DNA affinity precipitation assay including Gli2 protein binding to TRE2S and CREB protein binding to 21-bp sequence. Binding of CREB to a DNA probe containing both elements, TRE2S-21bp probe, was dependent on Gli2 protein under restricted conditions and was enhanced in a dose-dependent fashion by the binding of Gli2 protein to the same probe. Mutation in either element abolished the efficient binding of CREB. A glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of a fragment of Gli2 was able to bind to CREB. Therefore, Gli2-CREB interaction on the DNA probe is proposed to stabilize CREB binding to DNA. Tax can bind to CREB protein on the DNA; therefore, stabilization of DNA binding of CREB results in more recruitment of Tax onto DNA. Conversely, Tax increased the DNA binding of CREB, although it had almost no effect on the binding of Gli2. These results suggest that Gli2 binds to the DNA element and interacts with CREB, resulting in more recruitment of Tax, which in turn stabilizes DNA binding of CREB. Similar cooperation of the protein binding to TRE2S-21bp probe was also observed in nuclear extract of an HTLV-1-infected T-cell line. Consistent with the Gli2-CREB interaction on the DNA elements, Tax-mediated trans activation was dependent on the size of the spacer between TRE2S and 21-bp sequence. The effective sizes of the spacer suggest that TRE2S in the LTR would cooperate with the second and third copies of the 21-bp sequence and contribute to trans activation of the viral gene transcription. (+info)
Human T-cell leukemia retrovirus-Tax protein is a repressor of nuclear receptor signaling.
The Tax oncoprotein promotes cellular transformation and is associated with the pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia. Tax expression activates transcription via the cAMP enhancer binding protein/activating transcription factor (CREB/ATF) and NF-kappaB pathways. In contrast to its positive action, here we demonstrate that Tax is a potent repressor of steroid and retinoid receptor transcription. The Tax protein becomes localized in the promyelocytic (PML) oncogenic domain, and unexpectedly, expression of the PML protein reverses Tax-induced repression. These results suggest that PML and Tax may act in opposing manners to influence nuclear receptor transcription and human T-cell leukemia retrovirus pathogenesis. (+info)
Constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in primary adult T-cell leukemia cells.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is an etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). The viral protein Tax induces the activation and nuclear translocalization of transcription factor NF-kappaB, which is proposed to play a crucial role in the transformation of T cells by HTLV-I. However, the HTLV-I genes including Tax are not expressed significantly in primary leukemic cells from ATL patients. In this study, we examined the basis for NF-kappaB activation in freshly isolated leukemic cells from ATL patients. We found that leukemic cells from ATL patients, like HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines, display constitutive NF-kappaB DNA binding activity and increased degradation of IkappaBalpha (an inhibitor of NF-kappaB). Whereas the NF-kappaB binding activity in Tax-expressing T-cell lines consisted mostly of p50/c-Rel, fresh ATL samples contained p50/p50 and p50/p65 heterodimers. One T-cell line derived from ATL leukemic cells, TL-Om1, displayed constitutive NF-kappaB activity, as well as enhanced degradation of IkappaBalpha, despite the lack of detectable Tax expression. Interestingly, the NF-kappaB in TL-Om1 consists of p50/p50 and p50/p65 like that in fresh primary leukemic cells. Our results suggest that activation of NF-kappaB occurs through a Tax-independent mechanism in leukemic cells of ATL patients, possibly due to differential NF-kappaB subunit activation. (+info)
Gene regulation mediated by interaction between HTLV-1 promoter elements and transcription factors Tax and CREB.
In this work we examine the role of three genetic control components in the regulation of HTLV-1 transcription: cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB), the HTLV-1 trans-activator Tax, and the three Tax-responsive elements (TREs). We demonstrate that the in vivo efficiency of the HTLV-1 promoter basal expression in cell culture depends on the spacing between the three TRE elements, located at the HTLV-1 LTR (long terminal repeat), whereas the level of transcription activation mediated by Tax is affected by the number of TREs. In the presence of only one TRE, the enhancement of expression by Tax is affected by the distance between the single TRE and the transcription start site. Following CREB binding to the LTR, additional DNase I hypersensitive sites are generated in the region between the two distal TREs (I and II), while in the presence of Tax, such sites are generated also in the region between TREs II and III. Neither cooperative binding of CREB to the TREs nor preferential binding of CREB to a particular TRE was observed. Tax binding to the CREB/TRE complex does not change the DNase I protection pattern. Taken together, these results suggest that the basal CREB-mediated transcription is determined by the number and the position of the viral TREs relative to each other. Tax protein stabilizes the protein/DNA complex and suppresses the spacing limitations, probably by bridging between the CREB/TRE complexes and the basal initiation transcription complex. (+info)
Disruption of nucleotide excision repair by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax protein.
The Tax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a transcriptional transactivator and viral oncogene. Since cellular transformation has been frequently linked to alterations in genome stability, we investigated the effect of Tax on nucleotide excision repair (NER), a prominent cellular DNA repair pathway. Cells expressing Tax exhibited a reduced capacity for NER as measured by unscheduled DNA synthesis and host cell reactivation assays. The cellular proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene product regulates DNA replication and repair pathways, including NER. Since Tax activates transcription of the PCNA promoter, we investigated whether this activity contributes to the reduction of NER. Tax increased endogenous PCNA protein expression, and analysis of Tax mutant proteins demonstrated that the reduction in NER correlated with Tax transactivation of PCNA gene expression. Direct overexpression of PCNA also reduced NER. We propose that overexpression of PCNA, and disruption of NER induced by Tax, predisposes cells to accumulate DNA damage and contributes to HTLV-1 transformation. (+info)
Expression of murine HOXD9 during embryonic joint patterning and in human T lymphotropic virus type I tax transgenic mice with arthropathy resembling rheumatoid arthritis.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the expression of murine HOXD9 during normal joint development and in arthritic joints of human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) tax transgenic mice and the role of HTLV-I tax in HOXD9 expression. METHODS: Expression of HOXD9, HOXD1O, HOXD11, HOXD12, and HOXD13 genes in joint tissues at the ankle/foot regions of mouse embryos at day 10 to day 18 of gestation (E10-E18) and neonates within 10 days after birth was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ reverse transcription methods. Adult synovial tissues from 5 HTLV-I tax transgenic mice with chronic polyarthritis and 4 nontransgenic (normal) mice were also examined for expression of these HOXD genes. The effect of HTLV-I on HOXD9 expression in cultured synoviocytes was studied by in vitro infection and transfection experiments. RESULTS: Expression of HOXD9 was detected in embryonic joints, preferentially on articular cartilage, only during the early stages of joint development (up to E15), whereas other HOXD genes were expressed throughout the embryonic and neonatal stages. In adult mice, transcripts of HOXD9 were specifically detected in synovial tissues from 4 of 5 arthritic mice, especially in the lining and sublining synovial cells, but not in synovial tissues of normal mice. Activation of HOXD9 was observed in cultured synoviocytes infected with HTLV-I in vitro as well as in those transfected with HTLV-I tax. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that HOXD9 is involved not only in the early stages of normal joint development, but may also be involved in the pathologic process of arthritis. HTLV-I tax appeared as an activator of this HOX gene in cultured synoviocytes. (+info)
Regulation of the human interleukin-5 promoter by Ets transcription factors. Ets1 and Ets2, but not Elf-1, cooperate with GATA3 and HTLV-I Tax1.
Interleukin-5 (IL-5), expressed primarily by type-2 T helper (Th2) cells, plays an important role in the development of allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma. Studying the regulation of IL-5 gene expression by Ets transcription factors, we found that Ets1 and Ets2, but not Elf-1, were able to activate the human IL-5 promoter in Jurkat T-cells. This required the presence of either phorbol 12-myristate acetate (PMA) plus ionomycin or PMA plus the viral protein HTLV-I Tax1. By mutation studies, it could be shown that Ets1 and Ets2 exerted their effects on the IL-5 promoter through a GGAA motif within the Cle0 element. In myeloid Kasumi cells, Ets1 and Ets2 failed to stimulate IL-5 promoter activity, unless the T-cell specific transcription factor GATA3 was added. These results show, for the first time, that Ets1 and Ets2 are able to cooperate with GATA3. Both ionomycin and Tax1 increased the combined effect of GATA3 with Ets1 and Ets2 in the presence of PMA. The data further demonstrate that, in addition to Ets1, Ets2 is also able to functionally cooperate with Tax1. The synergism of GATA3 with either Ets1 or Ets2 may play an important role in calcium- or Tax1-dependent regulation of IL-5 expression in Th2 cells or in HTLV-I transformed adult T-cell leukemia cells, respectively. (+info)
Peptide recognition by two HLA-A2/Tax11-19-specific T cell clones in relationship to their MHC/peptide/TCR crystal structures.
The crystal structures of two human TCRs specific for a HTLV-I Tax peptide bound to HLA-A2 were recently determined, for the first time allowing a functional comparison of TCRs for which the MHC/peptide/TCR structures are known. Extensive amino acid substitutions show that the native Tax residues are optimal at each peptide position. A prominent feature of the TCR contact surface is a deep pocket that accommodates a tyrosine at position 5 of the peptide. For one of these TCRs, this pocket is highly specific for aromatic residues. In the other TCR structure, this pocket is larger, allowing many different residues to be accommodated. The CTL clones also show major differences in the specificity for several other peptide residues, including side chains that are not directly contacted by the TCR. Despite the specificity of these clones, peptides that are distinct at five or six positions from Tax11-19 induce CTL activity, indicating that substantial changes of the peptide surface are tolerated. Human peptides with limited sequence homology to Tax11-19 represent partial TCR agonists for these CTL clones. The distinct functional properties of these CTL clones highlight structural features that determine TCR specificity and cross-reactivity for MHC-bound peptides. (+info)