The Lewontin and Krakauer test on quantitative characters.
It is shown that LEWONTIN and KRAKAUER's test could also be applied to quantitative characters that do not show important dominance and epistatic genetic variances. The design of experiments for this purpose and the error of the estimation of F are discussed. (+info)
Genetic heterogeneity within electrophoretic "alleles" of xanthine dehydrogenase in Drosophila pseudoobscura.
An experimental plan for an exhaustive determination of genic variation at structural gene loci is presented. In the initial steps of this program, 146 isochromosomal lines from 12 geographic populations of D. pseudoobscura were examined for allelic variation of xanthine dehydrogenase by the serial use of 4 different electrophoretic conditions and a head stability test. The 5 criteria revealed a total of 37 allelic classes out of the 146 genomes examined where only 6 had been previously revealed by the usual method of gel electrophoresis. This immense increase in genic variation also showed previously unsuspected population differences between the main part of the species distribution and the isolated population of Bogota population. The average heterozygosity at the Xdh locus is at least 72% in natural populations. This result, together with the very large number of alleles segregating and the pattern of allelic frequencies, has implications for theories of genetic polymorphism which are discussed. (+info)
Polymorphism in a cyclic parthenogenetic species: Simocephalus serrulatus.
A survey of sixteen isozyme loci using electrophoretic techniques was conducted for three isolated natural populations and one laboratory population of the cyclic parthenogenetic species, Simocephalus serrulatus. The proportion of polymorphic loci (33%-60%) and the average number of heterozygous loci per individual (6%-23%) in the three natural populations were found to be comparable to those found in most sexually reproducing organisms. Detailed analyses were made for one of these populations using five polymorphic loci. The results indicated that (1) seasonal changes in genotypic frequencies took place, (2) apomicitic parthenogenesis does not lead to genetic homogeneity, and (3) marked gametic disequilibrium at these five loci was present in the population, indicating that selection acted on coadapted groups of genes. (+info)
Testing for selective neutrality of electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphisms.
The statistical assessment of gene-frequency data on protein polymorphisms in natural populations remains a contentious issue. Here we formulate a test of whether polymorphisms detected by electrophoresis are in accordance with the stepwise, or charge-state, model of mutation in finite populations in the absence of selection. First, estimates of the model parameters are derived by minimizing chi-square deviations of the observed frequencies of genotypes with alleles (0,1,2...) units apart from their theoretical expected values. Then the remaining deviation is tested under the null hypothesis of neutrality. The procedure was found to be conservative for false rejections in simulation data. We applied the test to Ayala and Tracey 's data on 27 allozymic loci in six populations of Drosophila willistoni . About one-quarter of polymorphic loci showed significant departure from the neutral theory predictions in virtually all populations. A further quarter showed significant departure in some populations. The remaining data showed an acceptable fit to the charge state model. A predominating mode of selection was selection against alleles associated with extreme electrophoretic mobilities. The advantageous properties and the difficulties of the procedure are discussed. (+info)
Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups.
OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups. (+info)
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism and coronary artery disease.
BACKGROUND: Cytokine gene variations are contributory factors in inflammatory pathology. Allele frequencies of interleukin (IL)-1 cluster genes [IL-1A(-889), IL-1B(-511), IL-1B(+3953), IL-1RN Intron 2 VNTR] and tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha gene [TNFA(-308)] were measured in healthy blood donors (healthy control subjects), patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries (patient control subjects), single-vessel coronary disease (SVD), and those with multivessel coronary disease (MVD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Five hundred fifty-six patients attending for coronary angiography in Sheffield were studied: 130 patient control subjects, 98 SVD, and 328 MVD. Significant associations were tested in an independent population (London) of 350: 57 SVD, 191 MVD, and 102 control subjects. IL-1RN*2 frequency in Sheffield patient control subjects was the same as in 827 healthy control subjects. IL-1RN*2 was significantly overrepresented in Sheffield SVD patients (34% vs 23% in patient control subjects); IL-1RN*2 homozygotes in the SVD population (chi2 carriage=8.490, 1 df, P=0.0036). This effect was present though not quite significant in the London population (P=0. 0603). A summary trend test of the IL-1RN SVD genotype data for Sheffield and London showed a significant association with *2 (P=0. 0024). No significant effect of genotype at IL-1RN was observed in the Sheffield or London MVD populations. Genotype distribution analysis comparing the SVD and MVD populations at IL-1RN showed a highly significant trend (P=0.0007) with the use of pooled data. No significant associations were seen for the other polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: IL-1RN*2 was significantly associated with SVD. A difference in genetic association between SVD and MVD was also apparent. (+info)
Novel regions of allelic deletion on chromosome 18p in tumors of the lung, brain and breast.
Lung cancer is now the number one cause of cancer death for both men and women. An age-adjusted analysis over the past 25 years shows that in women specifically, lung cancer incidence is on the rise. It is estimated that 10-20 genetic events including the alteration of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes will have occurred by the time a lung tumor becomes clinically evident. In an effort to identify regions containing novel cancer genes, chromosome 18p11, a band not previously implicated in disease, was examined for loss of heterozygosity (LOH). In this study, 50 matched normal and NSCLC tumor samples were examined using six 18p11 and one 18q12.3 PCR-based polymorphic markers. In addition, LOH was examined in 29 glioblastoma pairs and 14 paired breast carcinomas. This analysis has revealed potentially two regions of LOH in 18p11 in up to 38% of the tumor samples examined. The regions of LOH identified included a 2 cm area between markers D18S59 and D18S476, and a more proximal, 25 cm region of intermediate frequency between D18S452 and D18S453. These results provide evidence for the presence of one or more potential tumor suppressor genes on the short arm of chromosome 18 which may be involved in NSCLC, brain tumors and possibly breast carcinomas as well. (+info)
Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity.
A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality. (+info)