Expression and tissue localization of membrane-type 1, 2, and 3 matrix metalloproteinases in human astrocytic tumors.
Three different membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT1-, MT2-, and MT3-MMPs) are known to activate in vitro the zymogen of MMP-2 (pro-MMP-2, progelatinase A), which is one of the key MMPs in invasion and metastasis of various cancers. In the present study, we have examined production and activation of pro-MMP-2, expression of MT1-, MT2-, and MT3-MMPs and their correlation with pro-MMP-2 activation, and localization of MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and MT2-MMP in human astrocytic tumors. The sandwich enzyme immunoassay demonstrates that the production levels of pro-MMP-2 in the anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas are significantly higher than that in the low-grade astrocytomas (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), metastatic brain tumors (P<0.05), or normal brains (P<0.01). Gelatin zymography indicates that the pro-MMP-2 activation ratio is significantly higher in the glioblastomas than in other astrocytic tumors (P<0.01), metastatic brain tumors (P<0.01), and normal brains (P<0.01). The quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrate that MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP are expressed predominantly in glioblastoma tissues (17/17 and 12/17 cases, respectively), and their expression levels increase significantly as tumor grade increases. MT3-MMP is detectable in both astrocytic tumor and normal brain tissues, but the mean expression level is approximately 50-fold lower compared with that of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP in the glioblastomas. The activation ratio of pro-MMP-2 correlates directly with the expression levels of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP but not MT3-MMP. In situ hybridization indicates that neoplastic astrocytes express MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP in the glioblastoma tissues (5/5 cases and 5/5 cases, respectively). Immunohistochemically, MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP are localized to the neoplastic astrocytes in glioblastoma samples (17/17 cases and 12/17 cases, respectively), which are also positive for MMP-2. In situ zymography shows gelatinolytic activity in the glioblastoma tissues but not in the normal brain tissues. These results suggest that both MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP play a key role in the activation of pro-MMP-2 in the human malignant astrocytic tumors and that the gelatinolytic activity is involved in the astrocytic tumor invasion. (+info)
Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is expressed by tumor cells in invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinomas.
Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is a human matrix metalloproteinase specifically expressed by invading tumor cells in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the head and neck. Here, we have further elucidated the role of MMP-13 in tumor invasion by examining its expression in invasive malignant tumors of the female genital tract. Using in situ hybridization, expression of MMP-13 mRNA was detected in 9 of 12 vulvar SCCs, primarily in tumor cells, but not in intact vulvar epithelium, in cervical SCCs (n = 12), or in endometrial (n = 11) or ovarian adenocarcinomas (n = 8). MMP-13 expression was especially abundant in vulvar carcinomas showing metastasis to lymph nodes and was associated with expression of membrane type 1 MMP by tumor cells and gelatinase-A (MMP-2) by stromal cells, as detected by immunohistochemistry. MMP-13 mRNAs were detected in 9 of 11 cell lines established from vulvar carcinomas and in 4 of 6 cell lines from cervical carcinomas, whereas endometrial (n = 10) and ovarian (n = 9) carcinoma cell lines were negative for MMP-13 mRNA. No correlation was detected between MMP-13 expression and p53 gene mutations in vulvar SCC cell lines. However, MMP-13 expression was detected in 5 of 6 vulvar and cervical SCC cell lines harboring HPV 16 or 68 DNA. These results show that MMP-13 is specifically expressed by malignantly transformed squamous epithelial cells, including vulvar SCC cells, and appears to serve as a marker for their invasive capacity. (+info)
Injury-induced gelatinase and thrombin-like activities in regenerating and nonregenerating nervous systems.
It is now widely accepted that injured nerves, like any other injured tissue, need assistance from their extracellular milieu in order to heal. We compared the postinjury activities of thrombin and gelatinases, two types of proteolytic activities known to be critically involved in tissue healing, in nonregenerative (rat optic nerve) and regenerative (fish optic nerve and rat sciatic nerve) neural tissue. Unlike gelatinases, whose induction pattern was comparable in all three nerves, thrombin-like activity differed clearly between regenerating and nonregenerating nervous systems. Postinjury levels of this latter activity seem to dictate whether it will display beneficial or detrimental effects on the capacity of the tissue for repair. The results of this study further highlight the fact that tissue repair and nerve regeneration are closely linked and that substances that are not unique to the nervous system, but participate in wound healing in general, are also crucial for regeneration or its failure in the nervous system. (+info)
Human diabetic neovascular membranes contain high levels of urokinase and metalloproteinase enzymes.
PURPOSE: Retinal neovascularization is one of the leading causes of blindness. A crucial event in this process is the remodeling and penetration of the capillary basement membrane by migrating endothelial cells. This process requires proteolysis of basement membrane components by a variety of proteinases. The objective of the present study was to determine the expression of proteinases in human retinal tissues showing active neovascularization. METHODS: Epiretinal neovascular membranes surgically removed from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy were analyzed by zymography, and the types and amounts of proteinases present in the tissues were determined. Retinas from nondiabetic donor eyes served as control specimens. RESULTS: Both the high- (54 kDa) and low- (33 kDa) molecular-weight forms of urokinase were present at significantly higher levels in neovascular membranes than in normal retinas. The pro forms of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly elevated in the neovascular membranes in comparison with levels in normal retinas. In addition, the active forms of these enzymes were present in the membranes, whereas there was no detectable level of the active forms in normal retinas. CONCLUSIONS: Human diabetic neovascular membranes contain high levels of urokinase and MMP. The increased activity of proteinases in the final common pathway of retinal neovascularization indicates that inhibition of these enzymes may be a useful therapeutic target as an alternative approach in the management of proliferative retinopathies. (+info)
Leukemia inhibitory factor and oncostatin M stimulate collagenase-3 expression in osteoblasts.
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and oncostatin M (OSM) have multiple effects on skeletal remodeling. Although these cytokines modestly regulate collagen synthesis in osteoblasts, their effects on collagenase expression and collagen degradation are not known. We tested whether LIF and OSM regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in osteoblast-enriched cells isolated from fetal rat calvariae. LIF and OSM increased collagenase-3 (MMP-13) mRNA and immunoreactive protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. LIF and OSM enhanced the rate of transcription of the collagenase gene and stabilized collagenase mRNA in transcriptionally arrested cells. LIF and OSM failed to regulate the expression of gelatinase A (MMP-2) and B (MMP-9). LIF and OSM modestly stimulated the expression of TIMP-1 but did not alter the expression of TIMP-2 and -3. In conclusion, LIF and OSM stimulate collagenase-3 and TIMP-1 expression in osteoblasts, and these effects may be involved in mediating the bone remodeling actions of these cytokines. (+info)
Luteinization and proteolysis in ovarian follicles of Meishan and Large White gilts during the preovulatory period.
This experiment was conducted to determine why follicles luteinize faster in the Meishan breed than in the Large White breed of pig. Follicles were recovered during the late follicular phase from ovaries of both breeds before and after administration of hCG given to mimic the LH surge. First, the patterns of cholesterol transporters (high and low density lipoproteins: HDL and LDL) were compared. Cholesterol transporters detected in follicular fluid consisted of HDL only. Similar amounts of Apolipoprotein A-I were found in all samples. There was no obvious breed effect on minor lipoproteins found in the HDL-rich fraction, and this pattern was altered similarly by hCG in the two breeds. The LDL-rich samples of serum from both breeds contained similar amounts of protein. Second, three steroidogenic enzymes, adrenodoxin, 17 alpha-hydroxylase-lyase (P450(17) alpha) and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) were detected by immunohistochemistry and quantified by image analysis on sections of the two largest follicles. Before hCG treatment, theca interna cells demonstrated immunoreactivities for adrenodoxin (strong), P450(17) alpha and 3 beta-HSD (very strong), whereas granulosa cells displayed immunoreactivities for adrenodoxin only. After hCG treatment, the localization of the enzymes was unchanged but the staining intensity of adrenodoxin on granulosa cells and 3 beta-HSD on theca cells increased (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Breed effects were detected for the amounts of adrenodoxin in theca cells (Meishan > Large White; P < 0.05) and of 17 alpha-hydroxylase (Large White > Meishan, P < 0.01). Breed x treatment interactions were never detected. Finally, gelatinases, plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were visualized by direct or reverse zymography or western blotting. Whatever the stage relative to LH administration, follicular fluid from Large White gilts contained more TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 (P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively). No breed effect was detected for the amounts of gelatinases and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. However, for these parameters, a significant breed x time interaction was obvious, as the Meishan follicles had a greater response to hCG (P < 0.01). Since proteolysis plays a key role in the bioavailability of growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor beta, which have the ability to alter gonadotrophin-induced progesterone production in pigs, the differences observed in its control in the present study may explain, at least in part, the different patterns of luteinization observed in Meishan and Large White follicles. (+info)
Identification and characterization of the fifth membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase MT5-MMP.
A new member of the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase (MT-MMP) subfamily tentatively named MT5-MMP was isolated from mouse brain cDNA library. It is predicted to contain (i) a candidate signal sequence, (ii) a propeptide region with the highly conserved PRCGVPD sequence, (iii) a potential furin recognition motif RRRRNKR, (iv) a zinc-binding catalytic domain, (v) a hemopexin-like domain, (vi) a 24-residue hydrophobic domain as a potential transmembrane domain, and (vii) a short cytosolic domain. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of its transcripts indicates that MT5-MMP is expressed in a brain-specific manner consistent with the origin of its EST clone from cerebellum. It is also highly expressed during embryonic development at stages day 11 and 15. Like other MT-MMPs, MT5-MMP specifically activates progelatinase A when co-expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Its ability to activate progelatinase A is dependent on its proteolytic activity since a mutation converting Glu to Ala in the zinc binding motif HE255LGH renders MT5-MMP inactive against progelatinase A. In contrast to other MT-MMPs, MT5-MMP tends to shed from cell surface as soluble proteinases, thus offering flexibility as both a cell bound and soluble proteinase for extracellular matrix remodeling processes. Taken together, these properties serve to distinguish MT5-MMP as a versatile MT-MMP playing an important role in extracellular matrix remodeling events in the brain and during embryonic development. (+info)
Expression of matrix metalloproteinases during murine chorioallantoic placenta maturation.
A large body of experimental evidence supports the participation of two groups of extracellular proteases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and plasminogen activators/plasmin, in tissue remodeling in physiological and pathological invasion. In the late mouse placenta, several tissue remodeling and cell invasion processes take place. Spongiotrophoblast migration into maternal decidua, as well as decidual extracellular matrix remodeling require the coordinated action of extracellular proteolytic enzymes. Via Northern and in situ hybridization, we have analyzed the spatio-temporal expression patterns of members of the MMP family (stromelysin-3, gelatinases A and B), as well as their inhibitors TIMP-1, -2 and -3 in late murine placenta (days 10.5 to 18.5 of gestation). Gelatinase activity in placental extracts was assessed by substrate zymography. Gelatinase A and stromelysin-3 were found to be prominently expressed in decidual tissue; shortly after midpregnancy, the decidual expression patterns of gelatinase A and stromelysin-3 became overlapping with each other, as well as with the expression domain of TIMP-2. On the other hand, gelatinase B transcripts were expressed only by trophoblast giant cells at day 10.5, and were downregulated at later stages. TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 transcripts were detected in decidual periphery at day 10.5, while later the expression was restricted to the endometrial stroma and spongiotrophoblasts, respectively. The areas of stromelysin-3 expression were the same (giant trophoblasts) or adjacent (decidua) to those where urokinase (uPA) transcripts were detected, suggesting a possible cooperation between these proteinases in placental remodeling. We generated mice doubly deficient for stromelysin-3 and uPA, and report here that these mice are viable and fertile. Furthermore, these animals do not manifest obvious placental abnormalities, thereby suggesting the existence of compensatory/redundant mechanisms involving other proteolytic enzymes. Our findings document the participation of MMPs and their inhibitors in the process of late murine placenta maturation, and warrant the characterization of other members of the MMP family, like membrane type-MMPs, in this process. (+info)