Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. I. Natural occurrence and diagnosis.
Clinical sickness was observed in domestic ducks, geese, horses and swine during October 1973. All species showed upper alimentary distress with mortalities occurring in the geese. Barley derived from a common source had been fed. Examination of the barley revealed invasion by Fusarium spp and detection of a high level of dermatitic fusariotoxins. (+info)
Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. II. Analysis and toxicity of syspected barley.
Fusariotoxin T-2, a trichothecene, was tentatively identified in barley samples which caused field outbreaks of mycotoxicosis in British Columbia. Geese died when fed the contaminated barley experimentally but mice were little affected after long term feeding. The methods used in the laboratory for trichothecene extraction and identification of T-2 toxin are described. (+info)
Fatty acid binding protein in heart and skeletal muscles of the migratory barnacle goose throughout development.
The long-distance migratory flights of birds are predominantly fueled by the oxidation of fatty acids, which are sourced primarily from extracellular adipose stores. These fatty acids have to be transported, via the circulatory system, to the mitochondria of the active muscles. An important facilitator of fatty acid transport within the cytoplasm of muscle cells is fatty acid binding protein (FABP), which serves as an intracellular carrier of long-chain fatty acids. In mammals, the muscular FABP content is related to the fatty acid oxidation capacity of the tissue. The aim of this study was to measure FABP in samples taken from the cardiac, pectoralis, and semimembranosus muscles of a long-distance avian migrant, the barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis), at various stages of development. Western blot analysis identified a single goose muscle protein of 15 kDa that was able to bind fatty acids and showed a 66% cross-reactivity with antibodies against human heart-type FABP. Captive goslings showed no significant changes in FABP content of either the heart (62.6 +/- 10.6 microgram/g wet wt) or the semimembranosus muscle (8.4 +/- 1.9 microgram/g wet wt) during development. However, in both peripheral and deep sites within the pectoralis muscle, FABP content of samples taken from captive goslings were approximately 10-fold higher throughout development and reached values of 30-40 microgram/g wet wt in fledging goslings at 7 wk of age. A further twofold higher value was seen in wild but not in captive goslings immediately before migration (12 wk of age). Similarly, FABP content was significantly higher in pectoralis samples taken from wild adults (94.3 +/- 3.6 microgram/g wet wt) compared with those from captive adults (60.5 +/- 3.6 micro/g wet wt). These results suggest that the experience of flight activity may be of critical importance in achieving maximal expression of FABP in the pectoralis muscles of postfledging and mature geese immediately before migration. (+info)
Coenonia anatina gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel bacterium associated with respiratory disease in ducks and geese.
Taxon 1502 was originally described as a Riemerella anatipestifer-like bacterium causing exudative septicaemia in ducks and geese. In the present study, an integrated genotypic and phenotypic approach was used to elucidate the phylogenetic affiliation and taxonomic relationships of 12 strains of taxon 1502. Whole-cell protein and fatty acid analyses and an extensive biochemical examination by using conventional tests and several API microtest systems indicated that all isolates formed a homogeneous taxon, which was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridizations. 16S rDNA sequence analysis of a representative strain (LMG 14382T) indicated that this taxon belongs to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum and revealed a moderate but distinct relationship to species of the genus Capnocytophaga (overall 16S rDNA sequence identities were 88.8-90.2%). Taxon 1502 is concluded to represent a single species that should be allocated to a novel genus, and the name Coenonia anatina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G + C content of representative strains was 35-36 mol% and the type strain is LMG 14382T. (+info)
Genetic characterization of the pathogenic influenza A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus: similarity of its hemagglutinin gene to those of H5N1 viruses from the 1997 outbreaks in Hong Kong.
Analysis of the sequences of all eight RNA segments of the influenza A/G oose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus, isolated from a sick goose during an outbreak in Guangdong province, China, in 1996, revealed that the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the virus was genetically similar to those of the H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong in 1997. However, the remaining genes showed greater similarity to other avian influenza viruses. Notably, the neuraminidase gene did no have the 19-amino-acid deletion in the stalk region seen in the H5N1 Hong Kong viruses and the NS gene belonged to allele B, while that of the H5N1 Hong Kong viruses belonged to allele A. These data suggest that the H5N1 viruses isolated from the Hong Kong outbreaks derived their HA genes from a virus similar to the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 virus or shared a progenitor with this goose pathogen. (+info)
Differences in receptor specificity between Newcastle disease viruses originating from chickens and waterfowl.
We compared the receptor specificity of Newcastle disease viruses from a variety of avian species, including chickens and wild waterfowl, using hemagglutination tests with erythrocytes from different animal species. All isolates from wild waterfowl agglutinated horse erythrocytes, while the chicken isolates did not. The results showed that the receptor specificity of Newcastle disease viruses is different, depending on the avian species from which the viruses are isolated. (+info)
A new avian hepadnavirus infecting snow geese (Anser caerulescens) produces a significant fraction of virions containing single-stranded DNA.
We describe the identification and functional analysis of an evolutionary distinct new avian hepadnavirus. Infection of snow geese (Anser caerulescens) with a duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV)-related virus, designated SGHBV, was demonstrated by detection of envelope proteins in sera with anti-DHBV preS and S antibodies. Comparative sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified SGHBV genomes revealed unique SGHBV sequence features compared with other avian hepadnaviruses. Unlike DHBV, SGHBV shows an open reading frame in an analogous position to orthohepadnavirus X genes. Four of five cloned genomes were competent in replication, gene expression, and virus particle secretion in chicken hepatoma cells. Primary duck hepatocytes were permissive for infection with SGHBV, suggesting a similar or identical host range. SGHBV was found to secrete a significant fraction of virion-like particles containing single-stranded viral DNA. This was observed both in cell culture medium of SGHBV DNA-transfected LMH cells and in viremic sera of several birds, suggesting that it is a stable trait of SGHBV. Taken together, SGHBV has several unique features that expand the knowledge of the functional and evolutionary diversity of hepadnaviruses and offers new experimental opportunities for studies on the life cycle of hepadnaviruses. (+info)
Entomologic and avian investigations of an epidemic of West Nile fever in Romania in 1996, with serologic and molecular characterization of a virus isolate from mosquitoes.
Between July and October 1996, a West Nile (WN) fever epidemic occurred in the southern plain and Danube Valley of Romania and in the capital city of Bucharest, resulting in hundreds of neurologic cases and 17 fatalities. In early October 1996, entomologic and avian investigations of the epidemic were conducted in the city of Bucharest and nearby rural areas. Thirty (41%) of 73 domestic fowl sampled had neutralizing antibody to WN virus, including 5 of 13 ducks (38%), 1 of 1 goose, 19 of 52 chickens (37%), 1 of 1 peahen, and 4 of 6 turkeys (67%). Seroprevalence in domestic fowl (27%, or 7 of 26) from the urban Bucharest site was not significantly different (P = 0.08, by Fisher's exact test) than rates at three rural sites (50%, or 23 of 46). Serum collected from one of 12 Passeriformes, an Erithacus rubecula, was positive for neutralizing antibody to WN virus. A total of 5,577 mosquitoes representing seven taxa were collected. Culex pipiens pipiens accounted for 96% of the mosquitoes collected. A single virus isolate, RO97-50, was obtained from a pool of 30 Cx. p. pipiens females aspirated from the walls and ceiling of a blockhouse located near the center of Bucharest, resulting in a minimum infection rate of 0.19 per 1,000. Antisera prepared against RO97-50 failed to distinguish among RO97-50, WN virus strain Eg101, and Kunjin (KUN) virus strain MRM16. A 2,323-basepair DNA fragment of the envelope (E) glycoprotein gene from RO97-50 and a Romanian WN virus strain obtained from a human cerebrospinal fluid sample, RO96-1030, were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of 23 WN virus strains and one KUN virus strain using the amino acid and nucleotide sequences for a small portion of the E gene suggest the existence of two large lineages of viruses. Bootstrap analysis of the nucleotide alignment indicated strong support (95%) for a lineage composed of WN virus strains from northern Africa, including isolates from Egypt and Algeria, and west, central, and east Africa, all of the European isolates, those from France and Romania, an Israeli isolate, and an isolate of KUN virus from Australia. The nucleotide sequence of RO97-50 was identical to the sequence of a WN virus isolate obtained from Cx. neavei mosquitoes from Senegal and Cx. univittatus mosquitoes from Kenya. The phylogenetic analyses were compatible with the introduction of virus into Romania by birds migrating from sub-Saharan Africa, to northern Africa, and into southern Europe. (+info)