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(1/621) T-cell expression of the human GATA-3 gene is regulated by a non-lineage-specific silencer.

The GATA-3 transcription factor is required for development of the T-cell lineage and Th2 cytokine gene expression in CD4 T-cells. We have mapped the DNase-I-hypersensitive (HS) regions of the human GATA-3 gene in T-cells and non-T-cells and studied their transcriptional activities. HS I-III, located 5' from the transcriptional initiation site, were found in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, whereas HS IV-VII, located 3' from the transcriptional start site, were exclusively observed in T-cells. Among these hypersensitive sites, two transcriptional control elements were found, one in the first intron of the GATA-3 gene and the other between 8.3 and 5.9 kilobases 5' from the GATA-3 transcriptional initiation site. The first intron acted as a strong transcriptional activator in a position-dependent manner and with no cell-type specificity. The upstream regulatory element could confer T-cell specificity to the GATA-3 promoter activity, and analysis of this region revealed a 707-base pair silencer that drastically inhibited GATA-3 promoter activity in non-T-cells. Two CAGGTG E-boxes, located at the 5'- and 3'-ends of the silencer, were necessary for this silencer activity. The 3'-CAGGTG E-box could bind USF proteins, the ubiquitous repressor ZEB, or the basic helix-loop-helix proteins E2A and HEB, and we showed that a competition between ZEB and E2A/HEB proteins is involved in the silencer activity.  (+info)

(2/621) Combining SSH and cDNA microarrays for rapid identification of differentially expressed genes.

Comparing patterns of gene expression in cell lines and tissues has important applications in a variety of biological systems. In this study we have examined whether the emerging technology of cDNA microarrays will allow a high throughput analysis of expression of cDNA clones generated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A set of cDNA clones including 332 SSH inserts amplified by PCR was arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with fluorescent labeled probes prepared from RNA from ER-positive (MCF7 and T47D) and ER-negative (MDA-MB-231 and HBL-100) breast cancer cell lines. Ten clones were identified that were over-expressed by at least a factor of five in the ER-positive cell lines. Northern blot analysis confirmed over-expression of these 10 cDNAs. Sequence analysis identified four of these clones as cytokeratin 19, GATA-3, CD24 and glutathione-S-transferase mu-3. Of the remaining six cDNA clones, four clones matched EST sequences from two different genes and two clones were novel sequences. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence confirmed that CD24 protein was over-expressed in the ER-positive cell lines. We conclude that SSH and microarray technology can be successfully applied to identify differentially expressed genes. This approach allowed the identification of differentially expressed genes without the need to obtain previously cloned cDNAs.  (+info)

(3/621) Regulation of the human interleukin-5 promoter by Ets transcription factors. Ets1 and Ets2, but not Elf-1, cooperate with GATA3 and HTLV-I Tax1.

Interleukin-5 (IL-5), expressed primarily by type-2 T helper (Th2) cells, plays an important role in the development of allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma. Studying the regulation of IL-5 gene expression by Ets transcription factors, we found that Ets1 and Ets2, but not Elf-1, were able to activate the human IL-5 promoter in Jurkat T-cells. This required the presence of either phorbol 12-myristate acetate (PMA) plus ionomycin or PMA plus the viral protein HTLV-I Tax1. By mutation studies, it could be shown that Ets1 and Ets2 exerted their effects on the IL-5 promoter through a GGAA motif within the Cle0 element. In myeloid Kasumi cells, Ets1 and Ets2 failed to stimulate IL-5 promoter activity, unless the T-cell specific transcription factor GATA3 was added. These results show, for the first time, that Ets1 and Ets2 are able to cooperate with GATA3. Both ionomycin and Tax1 increased the combined effect of GATA3 with Ets1 and Ets2 in the presence of PMA. The data further demonstrate that, in addition to Ets1, Ets2 is also able to functionally cooperate with Tax1. The synergism of GATA3 with either Ets1 or Ets2 may play an important role in calcium- or Tax1-dependent regulation of IL-5 expression in Th2 cells or in HTLV-I transformed adult T-cell leukemia cells, respectively.  (+info)

(4/621) Expression and genetic interaction of transcription factors GATA-2 and GATA-3 during development of the mouse central nervous system.

Here we examine the expression of transcription factors GATA-2 and GATA-3 during early stages of embryonic development in the central nervous system (CNS) of the mouse. GATA-2 is expressed as early as 9 dpc in the hindbrain, in ventral rhombomere 4, and transiently in ventral rhombomere 2 (r2). From 9.5 to 11.5 dpc, activation of the gene spreads to many sites of early neuronal differentiation, such as the olfactory bulbs, the pretectum, and the oculomotor nucleus in the midbrain, a thin stripe of cells lining the floor plate from the mesencephalon to the cervical spinal cord and a ventral column of cells spanning the neural tube from rostral hindbrain and including motor neuron as well as ventral interneuron precursors. GATA-3 is expressed in a pattern very similar to that of GATA-2. Distinguishing features are the lack of expression in r2 at 9 dpc and a slight delay in its activation. In addition, GATA-2 is activated in both the ventricular and the subventricular zones of the neural tube, whereas GATA-3 is restricted mainly to the subventricular zone. Expression analyses performed on GATA-2 -/- mouse embryos between E9.5 and 10.5 dpc established that: (i) the expression of GATA-3 in the developing CNS of the mouse embryo is dependent on the presence of GATA-2 and (ii) loss of GATA-2 leads to severe defects in neurogenesis, which strongly suggests that GATA-2 is involved, as in hematopoiesis, in the maintenance of the pool of ventral neuronal progenitors.  (+info)

(5/621) GATA-3 is involved in the development of serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei.

The GATA-3 transcription factor shows a specific and restricted expression pattern in the developing and adult mouse brain. In the present study we investigated the role of GATA-3 in the caudal raphe system, which is known to operate as a modulator of motor activity. We demonstrate that virtually all neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei that express GATA-3 also produce serotonin. Absence of GATA-3, as analyzed in chimeric -/- mice, affects the cytoarchitecture of serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei. As a result the chimeras show a serious defect in their locomotor performance on a rotating rod. In sum, we conclude that GATA-3 plays a major role in the development of the serotonergic neurons of the caudal raphe nuclei, and that it is crucial for their role in locomotion.  (+info)

(6/621) Embryonic expression of the human GATA-3 gene.

The spatial and temporal analysis of GATA-3 expression pattern in the human embryo revealed its expression in new anatomical sites. These include the endoderm of the primitive foregut, pharynx and allantois, the branchial arches and the mesenchymal cells surrounding the stomach and dorsal aorta. On the other hand, human (h) GATA-3 expression in the central nervous system, somites and embryonic kidney confirms the tissue specificity of this gene throughout vertebrate evolution.  (+info)

(7/621) Gata2 and Gata3: novel markers for early embryonic polarity and for non-neural ectoderm in the chick embryo.

We have investigated in detail the expression patterns of two Gata genes, cGata2 and cGata3, during early chick development. In addition to confirming previously described expression of these two genes in developing brain, kidney and blood islands, this study reveals several important novel expression domains during very early stages of development. cGata2 is expressed in the area opaca in pre-primitive streak stages, forming a gradient along the A-P axis (strongest anteriorly). Both genes are expressed strongly in the entire non-neural ectoderm from stage 4+, and neither is expressed in prospective neural plate at any stage. Unlike other previously described non-neural markers, neither gene is expressed in the dorsal neural tube. We also describe dynamic expression of cGata2 and cGata3 during eye, ear and gut development.  (+info)

(8/621) Inhibition of allergic inflammation in a murine model of asthma by expression of a dominant-negative mutant of GATA-3.

The cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, secreted by Th2 cells, have distinct functions in the pathogenesis of asthma. We have previously shown that the transcription factor GATA-3 is expressed in Th2 but not Th1 cells. However, it was unclear whether GATA-3 controls the expression of all Th2 cytokines. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of GATA-3 in mice in a T cell-specific fashion led to a reduction in the levels of all the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Airway eosinophilia, mucus production, and IgE synthesis, all key features of asthma, were severely attenuated in the transgenic mice. Thus, targeting GATA-3 activity alone is sufficient to blunt Th2 responses in vivo, thereby establishing GATA-3 as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of asthma and allergic diseases.  (+info)