(1/345) A manometric assessment of oesophagogastrostomy.
Intraluminal pressures were recorded in 14 patients who had undergone oesophagogastrectomy. Seven of these had a mid-thoracic and seven a high cervical oesophagogastrostomy. The incidence of postoperative reflux complications in each group was noted. No pressure gradient across the anastomosis was detected in any patient but the upper oesophageal sphincter was shown to be retained as a functioning unit in all cases. It is considered that the thoracic anastomosis provides no demonstrable barrier to reflux. In addition, a high cervical oesophagogastrostomy does not adversely affect the upper oesophageal sphincter. The wider application of this latter procedure may be associated with a decreased incidence of postoperative reflux complications. (+info)
(2/345) Long-term outcome of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding in patients with dysphagic stroke.
OBJECTIVE: investigation of length of survival, complications, level of dependence and recovery of swallow in patients who received percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding for dysphagia due to stroke. DESIGN: a retrospective case note analysis of patients treated between 1991 and 1995 and telephone survey of modified Barthel index in October 1996. SETTING: Cardiff Royal Infirmary and the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff. SUBJECTS: 126 patients who had PEG inserted after dysphagic stroke. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: complications of PEG, length of survival, duration of PEG feeding, recovery of swallow and modified Barthel index score. RESULTS: median length of follow-up was 31 months (range 4-71). Median duration of PEG use was 127 days (range 1-1372). For patients with PEG inserted within 2 weeks the median duration was 52 days (range 2-1478). At follow up 36 (29%) had had PEG removed, 72 (57%) had died with PEG in use, 10 (8%) still had PEG and were nil by mouth and five (4%) had PEG in use with swallow recovered. The median survival was 305 days. Thirty-five (28%) patients died in hospital. Aspiration pneumonia was the commonest complication. Thirty-three patients were alive in October 1996. The modified Barthel index for nursing home patients was 4 (range 0-13) and for patients at home 11 (range 2-20). CONCLUSION: PEG feeding is safe and well tolerated in patients with dysphagic stroke. Early PEG placement (within 2 weeks) is worthwhile with many going on to have long-term feeding. Although overall mortality is high, some patients have a long-term survival and a few attain a reasonable level of function in daily living activities. Late recovery of swallow occurs and patients should have follow-up swallowing assessment. (+info)
(3/345) Efficacy of gastrostomy feeding in infants and older children receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of supplemental gastrostomy tube (g-tube) feeding in infants and children receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Pediatric nephrology division of tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Fifteen patients undergoing g-tube insertion while receiving CPD were included in the study, and were subdivided, on the basis of age, into the following groups: infants (< or = 2.5 years, n = 8); older children (> 2.5 years, n = 7). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessment of the effect of CPD and g-tube feeding on statural growth assessed by height standard deviation score (SDS) and percentage weight-for-height, and measured anthropometric variables including triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), midarm muscle circumference (MAMC), and midarm mean circumference (MAC). Assessment of the effects of CPD and g-tube feeding on measured biochemical variables including total protein, albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein. RESULTS: No significant change in height SDS was observed; however, the reported continuing decline in height SDS in infants was arrested. Percentage weight-for-height increased significantly in infants at 6 months (p = 0.008) and 12 months (p = 0.006) following initiation of g-tube feeding. An increase was also observed in the older child group, being significant at 12 months (p = 0.031) following g-tube insertion. Increases in all anthropometric variables occurred in the infant group during CPD and post g-tube insertion, significant only for MAMC at 12 months (p = 0.037) post g-tube insertion. In older children little change occurred during CPD, with all variables increasing post g-tube insertion, significant only for MAMC at 6 months (p = 0.02) and 12 months (p = 0.02). An increase in total protein and albumin was noted; however, no significant changes in any biochemical parameters were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Supplemental g-tube feeding facilitates weight gain in infants and older children receiving CPD and arrests the decline in height SDS traditionally observed in infants with end-stage renal disease. No significant alteration was observed in measured biochemical variables, although an increase in total protein and albumin was noted. (+info)
(4/345) Proline ameliorates arginine deficiency during enteral but not parenteral feeding in neonatal piglets.
The indispensability of arginine has not been conclusively established in newborns. Because parenteral feeding bypasses the gut (where de novo synthesis of arginine occurs from proline), a dietary supply of arginine that is sufficient to maintain urea cycle function may be of greater importance during intravenous compared with enteral feeding. Two-day-old piglets (n = 12) were fed nutritionally complete diets for 5 days via either a central vein catheter (IV pigs, n = 6) or a gastric catheter (IG pigs, n = 6). Subsequently, each piglet received three incomplete test diets [arginine free (-ARG/+PRO), proline free (-PRO/+ARG), or arginine and proline free (-ARG/-PRO)] in a randomized crossover design. Plasma ammonia was assayed every 30 min for 8 h or until hyperammonemia was observed. Ammonia increased rapidly in IV pigs receiving -ARG/+PRO and -ARG/-PRO (84 +/- 36 and 74 +/- 37 micromol. l(-1). h(-1), respectively), requiring early diet cessation. A rapid increase was also exhibited by IG pigs receiving the -ARG/-PRO, but not the -ARG/+PRO diet (31 +/- 15 vs. 11 +/- 7 micromol. l(-1). h(-1), respectively, P < 0.05). Plasma arginine and proline were indicative of deficiency (IG and IV groups) when deplete diets were infused. Arginine is indispensable in parenteral and enteral nutrition, independent of dietary proline. (+info)
(5/345) The effects on intragastric acidity of per-gastrostomy administration of an alkaline suspension of omeprazole.
BACKGROUND: It may be difficult to administer proton pump inhibitors via gastrostomy. Previous studies have examined the effect of intact proton pump inhibitor granules in orange juice. This study examined the effect of an alkaline suspension of omeprazole (simplified omeprazole suspension (SOS)) on 24-h intragastric acidity. METHODS: Six men with an established gastrostomy had a baseline 24-h intragastric pH study using methodology we have previously described. They then received 20 mg SOS o.d. for 7 days and had a repeat pH study at the end of this period. Four of the patients then received 20 mg SOS with 30 cc of liquid antacid (Mylanta) per gastrostomy o.d. for a further 7 days and then underwent a third pH study. RESULTS: SOS raised mean pH from 2.2 to 4.1. Intragastric pH was above 3, 4 and 5 for 35, 28 and 17% of the 24-h period at baseline, respectively; corresponding values after SOS were 63, 51 and 39%, respectively. Addition of liquid antacid to SOS did not further increase its pH-controlling effect. CONCLUSIONS: We found a statistically significant effect of o.d. SOS on intragastric pH when administered via gastrostomy. We found no additional benefit of administering SOS with liquid antacid. (+info)
(6/345) Is prophylactic gastrojejunostomy indicated for unresectable periampullary cancer? A prospective randomized trial.
OBJECTIVE: This prospective, randomized, single-institution trial was designed to evaluate the role of prophylactic gastrojejunostomy in patients found at exploratory laparotomy to have unresectable periampullary carcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Between 25% and 75% of patients with periampullary cancer who undergo exploratory surgery with intent to perform a pancreaticoduodenectomy are found to have unresectable disease. Most will undergo a biliary-enteric bypass. Whether or not to perform a prophylactic gastrojejunostomy remains unresolved. Retrospective reviews of surgical series and prospective randomized trials of endoscopic palliation have demonstrated that late gastric outlet obstruction, requiring a gastrojejunostomy, develops in 10% to 20% of patients with unresectable periampullary cancer. METHODS: Between May 1994 and October 1998, 194 patients with a periampullary malignancy underwent exploratory surgery with the purpose of performing a pancreaticoduodenectomy and were found to have unresectable disease. On the basis of preoperative symptoms, radiologic studies, or surgical findings, the surgeon determined that gastric outlet obstruction was a significant risk in 107 and performed a gastrojejunostomy. The remaining 87 patients were thought by the surgeon not to be at significant risk for duodenal obstruction and were randomized to receive either a prophylactic retrocolic gastrojejunostomy or no gastrojejunostomy. Short- and long-term outcomes were determined in all patients. RESULTS: Of the 87 patients randomized, 44 patients underwent a retrocolic gastrojejunostomy and 43 did not undergo a gastric bypass. The two groups were similar with respect to age, gender, procedure performed (excluding gastrojejunostomy), and surgical findings. There were no postoperative deaths in either group, and the postoperative morbidity rates were comparable (gastrojejunostomy 32%, no gastrojejunostomy 33%). The postoperative length of stay was 8.5+/-0.5 days for the gastrojejunostomy group and 8.0+/-0.5 days for the no gastrojejunostomy group. Mean survival among those who received a prophylactic gastrojejunostomy was 8.3 months, and during that interval gastric outlet obstruction developed in none of the 44 patients. Mean survival among those who did not have a prophylactic gastrojejunostomy was 8.3 months. In 8 of those 43 patients (19%), late gastric outlet obstruction developed, requiring therapeutic intervention (gastrojejunostomy 7 patients, endoscopic duodenal stent 1 patient; p < 0.01). The median time between initial exploration and therapeutic intervention was 2 months. CONCLUSION: The results from this prospective, randomized trial demonstrate that prophylactic gastrojejunostomy significantly decreases the incidence of late gastric outlet obstruction. The performance of a prophylactic retrocolic gastrojejunostomy at the initial surgical procedure does not increase the incidence of postoperative complications or extend the length of stay. A retrocolic gastrojejunostomy should be performed routinely when a patient is undergoing surgical palliation for unresectable periampullary carcinoma. (+info)
(7/345) Prospective, randomised, double blind trial of prophylaxis with single dose of co-amoxiclav before percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of antibacterial prophylaxis in preventing infectious complications after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, multicentre study. SETTING: Departments of internal medicine at six German hospitals. SUBJECTS: Of 106 randomised adult patients with dysphagia, 97 received study medication, and 84 completed the study. The median age of the patients was 65 years. Most had dysphagia due to malignant disease (65%), and many (76%) had serious comorbidity. INTERVENTIONS: A single intravenous 2.2 g dose of co-amoxiclav or identical appearing saline was given 30 min before percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy performed by the thread pull method. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Occurrence of peristomal wound infections and other infections within one week after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. RESULTS: The incidence of peristomal and other infections within one week after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was significantly reduced in the antibiotic group (8/41 (20%) v 28/43 (65%), P<0.001). Similar results were obtained in an intention to treat analysis. Several peristomal wound infections were of minor clinical significance. After wound infections that required no or only local treatment were excluded from the analysis, antibiotic prophylaxis remained highly effective in reducing clinically important wound infections (1/41 (2%) v 11/43 (26%), P<0.01) and non-wound infections (2 (5%) v 9 (21%), P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic prophylaxis with a single dose of co-amoxiclav significantly reduces the risk of infectious complications after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and should be recommended. (+info)
(8/345) Complications of percutaneous gastrostomy in patients with head and neck cancer--an analysis of 42 consecutive patients.
A total of 42 patients, who underwent insertion of a percutaneous gastrostomy tube prior to resection for oral squamous cell carcinoma, were investigated to examine the incidence and severity of complications associated with use of this technique. The team performing the procedure and the grade of operator was noted together with any subsequent complications and their outcome. Previously reported complication rates were 2.7-2.8% and 6-7.1% for major and minor complications, respectively, but, in this series, a major complication rate of 22.5% and minor complication rate of 17.5% were identified. The findings of this study have led to the introduction of a further prospective audit of this technique in the maxillofacial unit and a more selective policy of PEG prescription for patients undergoing resection for head and neck cancer. (+info)