Natural history of diabetic gastroparesis.
OBJECTIVE: The major aim of this study was to evaluate the prognosis of diabetic gastroparesis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Between 1984 and 1989, 86 outpatients with diabetes (66 type 1, 20 type 2; 40 male, 46 female) underwent assessment of solid and liquid gastric emptying and esophageal transit (by scintigraphy), gastrointestinal symptoms (by questionnaire), autonomic nerve function (by cardiovascular reflex tests), and glycemic control (by HbAlc and blood glucose concentrations during gastric emptying measurement). These patients were followed up in 1998. RESULTS: Of the 86 patients, solid gastric emptying (percentage of retention at 100 min) was delayed in 48 (56%) patients and liquid emptying (50% emptying time) was delayed in 24 (28%) patients. At follow-up in 1998, 62 patients were known to be alive, 21 had died, and 3 were lost to follow-up. In the group who had died, duration of diabetes (P = 0.048), score for autonomic neuropathy (P = 0.046), and esophageal transit (P = 0.032) were greater than in those patients who were alive, but there were no differences in gastric emptying between the two groups. Of the 83 patients who could be followed up, 32 of the 45 patients (71%) with delayed solid emptying and 18 of the 24 patients (75%) with delay in liquid emptying were alive. After adjustment for the effects of other factors that showed a relationship with the risk of dying, there was no significant relationship between either gastric emptying or esophageal transit and death. CONCLUSIONS: In this relatively large cohort of outpatients with diabetes, there was no evidence that gastroparesis was associated with a poor prognosis. (+info)
Gastric emptying rate assessment based on the proportion of intra-abdominal radioactivity in the stomach.
Using scintigraphic techniques, the rate of gastric emptying is calculated by quantifying the absolute radioactivity within a gastric region of interest (intragastric method) with the time of meal completion considered 100% retention. However, this technique has significant limitations arising from subject movement and radionuclide gamma-ray attenuation, which may render curve fitting difficult, particularly in patients with gastroparesis. In an attempt to minimize these limitations, we have expressed the intragastric content as a percentage of the total abdominal radioactivity (abdominal method) and compared these two methods. METHODS: Forty-five subjects in a sitting position consumed a meal consisting of two fried eggs labeled with 99mTc, two slices of toast and 300 mL 5% glucose water (412 kcal). Data were acquired at a rate of one frame every 5 min from the left anterior oblique view. Using the two methods, the intragastric retention ratios at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 240 min and the 50% emptying time (T50) were obtained from both observation and calculation by power exponential fit. R2, representing goodness of fit of the nonlinear curve fitting, was calculated. RESULTS: There were no differences in the calculated values of T50 between the two methods. Quantitative estimates of T50 by extrapolation of a power exponential fit were feasible in 42 of the 45 subjects when the abdominal method was used, compared with only 29 of the 45 subjects when the intragastric method was used. In the 23 subjects with delayed emptying, quantitative estimates of T50 were feasible in 20 subjects when the abdominal method was used, compared with 7 subjects when the intragastric method was used. Using the abdominal method as opposed to the intragastric method also significantly improved R2. The difference between observed values and estimated values of T50 and intragastric retention ratios at 30, 90 and 120 min was smaller using the abdominal method. CONCLUSION: Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying calculated using the proportion of the abdominal radioactivity in the stomach offers substantial advantages over conventional methods, particularly in patients with gastroparesis. (+info)
Measurement of gastric emptying by standardized real-time ultrasonography in healthy subjects and diabetic patients.
The aim of this study was to simplify and standardize a reproducible, well-tolerated and clinically applicable method for the assessment of gastric emptying rate by real-time ultrasonography. A total of 33 subjects were examined, including 19 healthy subjects and 14 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and clinically suspected delayed gastric emptying. Measurements of the gastric antrum were taken in the supine position and in relation to internal landmarks to obtain a standardized cross-sectional image producing the area of a selected slice of the antrum. Diabetic patients were examined on the condition that the fasting blood glucose level was 3.5 to 9.0 mmol/l. Gastric emptying rate was estimated and expressed as the percentage reduction in antral cross-sectional area from 15 to 90 min after the ingestion of a standardized semisolid breakfast meal (300 g rice pudding, 330 kcal). Interobserver and intraobserver measurement errors were assessed, as was the significance of age and sex on gastric emptying. In comparison to healthy subjects, diabetic patients showed significantly wider median values of the 90 min postprandial antral area, but only a mild tendency toward greater dilation of the gastric antrum prior to and 15 min after meal ingestion. The median value of gastric emptying rate in these diabetic patients was estimated at 29%, which was less than half of that in the healthy subjects (63%). Statistically the difference was highly significant. Interpersonal variability of gastric emptying rate and antral areas was large for both groups. Measurements of gastric emptying rate gave highly reproducible results on separate days and from different observers (interobserver systematic measurement error 0.3% and random measurement error 10.9%; intraobserver systematic measurement error 3.6% and random measurement error 9.5%). No difference in gastric emptying rate was found related to age or sex. We conclude that the use of standardized real-time ultrasonography to determine gastric antral cross-sectional area in a single section of the stomach is a valid method for estimating gastric emptying rate. (+info)
Evaluation and management of dyspepsia.
Dyspepsia, often defined as chronic or recurrent discomfort centered in the upper abdomen, can be caused by a variety of conditions. Common etiologies include peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux. Serious causes, such as gastric and pancreatic cancers, are rare but must also be considered. Symptoms of possible causes often overlap, which can make initial diagnosis difficult. In many patients, a definite cause is never established. The initial evaluation of patients with dyspepsia includes a thorough history and physical examination, with special attention given to elements that suggest the presence of serious disease. Endoscopy should be performed promptly in patients who have "alarm symptoms" such as melena or anorexia. Optimal management remains controversial in young patients who do not have alarm symptoms. Although management should be individualized, a cost-effective initial approach is to test for Helicobacter pylori and treat the infection if the test is positive. If the H. pylori test is negative, empiric therapy with a gastric acid suppressant or prokinetic agent is recommended. If symptoms persist or recur after six to eight weeks of empiric therapy, endoscopy should be performed. (+info)
Comparative effects of levosulpiride and cisapride on gastric emptying and symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis.
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of several prokinetic drugs on dyspeptic symptoms and on gastric emptying rates are well-established in patients with functional dyspepsia, but formal studies comparing different prokinetic drugs are lacking. AIM: To compare the effects of chronic oral administration of cisapride and levosulpiride in patients with functional dyspepsia and delayed gastric emptying. METHODS: In a double-blind crossover comparison, the effects of a 4-week administration of levosulpiride (25 mg t.d.s.) and cisapride (10 mg t.d.s.) on the gastric emptying rate and on symptoms were evaluated in 30 dyspeptic patients with functional gastroparesis. At the beginning of the study and after levosulpiride or cisapride treatment, the gastric emptying time of a standard meal was measured by 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Gastrointestinal symptom scores were also evaluated. RESULTS: The efficacy of levosulpiride was similar to that of cisapride in significantly shortening (P < 0.001) the t1/2 of gastric emptying. No significant differences were observed between the two treatments with regards to improvements in total symptom scores. However, levosulpiride was significantly more effective (P < 0.01) than cisapride in improving the impact of symptoms on the patients' every-day activities and in improving individual symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and early postprandial satiety. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of levosulpiride and cisapride in reducing gastric emptying times with no relevant side-effects is similar. The impact of symptoms on patients' everyday activities and the improvement of some symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and early satiety was more evident with levosulpiride than cisapride. (+info)
Effects of fedotozine on gastric emptying and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetic gastroparesis.
BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying and upper gastrointestinal symptoms occur frequently in patients with diabetes mellitus. AIM: To evaluate the effects of fedotozine on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetic gastroparesis. METHODS: Thirty-one diabetic patients (20 type 1, 11 type 2) with gastroparesis were randomized to receive fedotozine (30 mg as the tartrate) or placebo t.d.s. Measurements of gastric emptying (100 g ground beef labelled with 20 MBq 99mTc-sulphur colloid chicken liver and 150 mL 10% dextrose labelled with 10 MBq 113mIn-DTPA) and gastrointestinal symptoms were performed before and after 12-16 days of treatment. Data are the mean +/- s.d. RESULTS: Of the 31 patients enrolled, two were excluded from analysis. Data from the remaining 29 patients (18 type 1, 11 type 2; 22 female, seven male), aged 42.7 +/- 11.1 years (of whom 14 were randomized to fedotozine and 15 to placebo), were analysed. Fedotozine had no effect on either gastric emptying (solid retention at 100 min; fedotozine: baseline, 84 +/- 15%; treatment, 73 +/- 23% vs. placebo: baseline, 83 +/- 10%; treatment, 70 +/- 20%) or liquid 50% emptying time (fedotozine: baseline, 59 +/- 32 min; treatment, 58 +/- 38 min vs. placebo: baseline, 44 +/- 9 min; treatment, 43 +/- 21 min) or gastrointestinal symptoms (fedotozine: baseline, 4.4 +/- 2.9; treatment, 4.1 +/- 3.9 vs. placebo: baseline, 4.9 +/- 4.2; treatment, 4.8 +/- 3.9). CONCLUSIONS: Fedotozine has no effect on gastric emptying in patients with diabetic gastroparesis. (+info)
Remodeling of networks of interstitial cells of Cajal in a murine model of diabetic gastroparesis.
Patients with long-standing diabetes commonly suffer from gastric neuromuscular dysfunction (gastropathy) causing symptoms ranging from postprandial bloating to recurrent vomiting. Autonomic neuropathy is generally believed to be responsible for diabetic gastropathy and the underlying impairments in gastric emptying (gastroparesis) and receptive relaxation, but the specific mechanisms have not been elucidated. Recently, it has been recognized that interstitial cells of Cajal generate electrical pacemaker activity and mediate motor neurotransmission in the stomach. Loss or defects in interstitial cells could contribute to the development of diabetic gastroparesis. Gastric motility was characterized in spontaneously diabetic NOD/LtJ mice by measuring gastric emptying and by monitoring spontaneous and induced electrical activity in circular smooth muscle cells. Interstitial cells of Cajal were studied by Kit immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Diabetic mice developed delayed gastric emptying, impaired electrical pacemaking, and reduced motor neurotransmission. Interstitial cells of Cajal were greatly reduced in the distal stomach, and the normally close associations between these cells and enteric nerve terminals were infrequent. Our observations suggest that damage to interstitial cells of Cajal may play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic gastropathy. (+info)
Gastroparesis following bone marrow transplantation.
Patients often develop nausea, vomiting and bloating after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). These symptoms may interfere with nutrition and the ability to take oral medications. Gastroparesis is a recognized cause of these symptoms in non-transplant patients but less is known about patients who undergo BMT. Between January 1996 and March 1997, a total of 151 patients underwent BMT. Eighteen patients (12%) developed persistent symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis (persistent nausea, vomiting or bloating). Scintigraphic gastric emptying studies were performed to assess for gastroparesis. Prokinetic agents were administered at the time of study. The records on these patients were compared with those of all other patients undergoing BMT during the same time period without these symptoms. Nine patients who demonstrated delayed gastric emptying were further evaluated with esophagastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. Biopsy samples were reviewed for evidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Fourteen of 18 patients demonstrated delayed gastric emptying and most responded to prokinetic agents given at the time of study. Age, conditioning regimen, cytomegalovirus antigenemia and acute GVHD did not appear to be associated with the development of gastroparesis. Allogeneic BMT recipients were at higher risk than autologous BMT patients (26% vs 0%, P < 0.0001). of allogeneic bmt recipients, there was a nonsignificant trend of patients receiving tacrolimus to be less likely to experience gastroparesis than those receiving cyclosporine (27% vs 48%, P = 0.08). For the nine patients undergoing upper endoscopy, GVHD on gastric biopsy was an uncommon finding and was mild when present. Gastroparesis appears to be a common cause of nausea, vomiting and bloating following allogeneic BMT. This may occur less often with tacrolimus than cyclosporine because of the former agent's prokinetic properties. Patients usually respond to prokinetic drugs at the time of scintigraphy. GVHD and CMV infection do not appear to be major contributing factors. (+info)