Recent advances in cell biology, diagnosis, and therapy of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).
The understanding of mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract has evolved dramatically over the last two decades since gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) was described as the most common stromal tumor arising anywhere from the esophagus to the ano-rectum. Although morphologically similar to other benign and malignant smooth muscle and neural stromal neoplasms, GIST constitutes a distinct group of rare gastrointestinal tract tumors that originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal, regulators of gut peristalsis that normally express CD117, which is the product of the c-KIT proto-oncogene that encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor that regulates cellular proliferation in GISTs. Virtually all GISTs occur from mutations of the c-KIT oncogene and exhibit consistent expression of c-KIT (CD117), which is considered the most specific criterion for a diagnosis of GIST. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors vary in their behavior and several features have to be considered to assess their malignant potential. The advent of sophisticated imaging techniques for the evaluation and sampling of stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract has resulted in improved detection of GISTs. The identification of a novel tumor-specific target in c-KIT resulted in the development of a tyrosine kinase-inhibitor (imatinib mesylate) that provides an encouraging option for treating GISTs. This article reviews recent advances in the understanding of the cell biology, diagnosis, and therapy of GISTS. (+info)
Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the ampulla of Vater: a case report.
GIST is a rare neoplasm, the majority of GISTs are located in the stomach and small intestine. Most GISTs are diagnosed histopathologically after resection because of submucosal location. A 37-year-old female patient presented with a 2-weeks history of generalized weakness, nausea accompanied by intermittent passage of black, tarry stools. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and ERCP showed a large round mass measuring 5 cm in diameter in the ampulla of Vater with ulcer crack. Endoscopic multiple biopsies from the mass including ulcer base were taken. Light microscopic findings showed spindle-shaped and epitheloid tumor cells having high cellularity and frequent mitotic figures. On immunohistochemical stainings, the tumor cells were positive for CD34 and smooth muscle actin. Based on these preoperative findings, a diagnosis of malignant GIST of the ampulla of Vater was made probably. After operation, immunohistochemical studies revealed positive reaction for c-kit and vimentin, as well as focally reactive for CD34 and smooth muscle actin. We report a case of GIST in the ampulla of Vater presenting with melena that was diagnosed preoperatively and postoperatively. (+info)
Differential expression of KIT/PDGFRA mutant isoforms in epithelioid and mixed variants of gastrointestinal stromal tumors depends predominantly on the tumor site.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) form a distinctive group of mesenchymal neoplasms, showing differentiation towards the interstitial cells of Cajal. Morphologically, GISTs vary from cellular spindle cell tumors to epithelioid or mixed, epithelioid and spindle cell variants. The genotypic features underlying the morphologic differences of GISTs with vs without epithelioid components are not well defined. Acquisition of activating mutations in KIT and PDGFRA has been reported as alternative oncogenic events in the pathogenesis of GISTs. In this study, a comprehensive KIT and PDGFRA mutational analysis was performed in a group of 28 epithelioid/mixed type tumors, in order to explore whether a specific KIT/PDGFRA mutational status segregates these neoplasms from spindle cell variant GISTs. All GISTs were primary neoplasms, 16 (57.1%) originated from the stomach and 12 (42.8%) from other locations. Histomorphologically, 14 GISTs showed an epithelioid and 14 a mixed cell type pattern. Mutational analysis included KIT exons 9, 11, 13, and 17, and PDGFRA exons 12 and 18 prescreening by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, followed by direct sequencing. Activating mutations of KIT were found in 14 (50%) GISTs, the majority being within exon 11 (n=11; 39.2%), and the other comprised exon 9 AY 502-503 duplications (n=2; 7.2%) and exon 17 Lys --> Aln822 missense mutations (n=1; 3.6%). Most of the KIT mutant tumors (n=11; 78.6%) originated from nongastric sites. Seven (25.0%) GISTs with no detectable KIT mutations demonstrated PDGFRA mutant isoforms, carrying either D842 V mutations (n=5) or exon 18 deletions (n=2). All GISTs harboring PDGFRA mutant isoforms originated from the stomach. In seven tumors, no detectable mutations were found; all but one of nonmutant tumors initiated from the stomach and exhibited an epithelioid morphology. These findings indicate that the mutational status of epithelioid/mixed GISTs associates with the anatomical site of the tumor. (+info)
Improved 1-h rapid immunostaining method using intermittent microwave irradiation: practicability based on 5 years application in Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University Hospital.
Immunostaining depending on antigen-antibody specificity is the commonest approach for determining the localization of specific antigens in tissue sections. This procedure is applicable not only with frozen or specially fixed samples, but also has proved reliable with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections through improvement of antigen-retrieval. Immunostaining is thus firmly established as a tool for diagnostic pathology and in our institute multiple antibodies are applied for 13-15% of the cases examined, as well as H and E staining. With the standard approach, approximately 3 h is necessary from the beginning of deparaffinization till covering sections with the Envision system. We utilized intermittent microwave irradiation for 10 min during hybridization with primary and secondary antibodies in a special moist-chamber, to achieve all immunostaining steps within 1 h in 178 primary antibodies frequently used for diagnostic pathology. According to our 5 years experience, such microwave irradiation not only obtained significant specific staining for enhancing the specificity of antigen-antibody reactions, but also inhibited nonspecific binding. We present herein the details of the methodology and recommendations for its application with particular primary antibodies. This method can contribute to savings in time and energy, allowing pathologists to rapidly obtain diagnostic information. (+info)
Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 9p and loss of p16INK4A expression are associated with malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors GISTs are distinctive KIT-positive mesenchymal neoplasms. The genetic alterations leading to the malignant behavior of these tumors are not well characterized. In this study, 21 cases of GISTs (eight low malignant potential, nine primary malignant and four intra-abdominal recurrences) were characterized by immunohistochemistry and evaluated for loss of heterozygosity of the short arm of chromosome 9, using six microsatellite markers. Loss of heterozygosity with at least one microsatellite marker at 9p region was a common finding in high-risk GISTs (malignant and recurrent group) but was absent in the low malignant potential group. Recurrent GISTs showed more frequent deletions than their primary tumors. All cases with loss of heterozygosity showed deletions at 9p21. Similarly, all low malignant potential GISTs were immunoreactive for p16, whereas malignant tumors were negative for p16. These results suggest that loss of p16(INK4A) gene on 9p may contribute to the progression and/or malignant transformation of GISTs. (+info)
Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients.
PURPOSE: Response to photodynamic therapy depends on adequate tumor oxygenation as well as sufficient accumulation of photosensitizer in the tumor. The goal of this study was to investigate the presence of hypoxia and retention of the photosensitizer Photofrin in the tumors of patients with intra-abdominal carcinomatosis or sarcomatosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor nodules from 10 patients were studied. In nine of these patients, hypoxia was identified in histological sections of biopsied tumor after administration of the hypoxia marker 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1[H]-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)acetamide (EF5). In separate tumor nodules from 10 patients, Photofrin uptake was measured by fluorescence after tissue solubilization. RESULTS: Hypoxia existed in the tumors of five patients, with three of these patients demonstrating at least one severely hypoxic nodule. Physiological levels of oxygen were present in the tumors of four patients. An association between tumor size and hypoxia was not evident because some tumor nodules as small as approximately 2 mm in diameter were severely hypoxic. However, even these tumor nodules contained vascular networks. Three patients with severely hypoxic tumor nodules exhibited moderate levels of Photofrin uptake of 3.9 +/- 0.4 to 3.9 +/- 0.5 ng/mg (mean +/- SE). The four patients with tumors of physiological oxygenation did not consistently exhibit high tumor concentrations of Photofrin: mean +/- SE drug uptake among these patients ranged from 0.6 +/- 0.8 to 5.8 +/- 0.5 ng/mg. CONCLUSIONS: Carcinomatosis or sarcomatosis of the i.p. cavity may exhibit severe tumor hypoxia. Photofrin accumulation in tumors varied by a factor of approximately 10x among all patients, and, on average, those with severe hypoxia in at least one nodule did not demonstrate poor Photofrin uptake in separate tumor samples. These data emphasize the need for reconsideration of the generally accepted paradigm of small tumor size, good oxygenation, and good drug delivery because this may vary on an individual tumor basis. (+info)
Association of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha mutations with gastric primary site and epithelioid or mixed cell morphology in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) carry activating mutations of the KIT gene encoding the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. In a previous study we were able to show an association between the lack of KIT mutations (wild-type GISTs) and the presence of a significant epithelioid tumor component. A very recent study described the occurrence of PDGFRalpha mutations in KIT wt GISTS. Therefore, we studied a panel of 87 GISTs for mutations in the hot spot regions of the PDGFRalpha gene with single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and sequencing and correlated the PDGFRalpha status with pathomorphological data. We detected 20 cases with exon 18 mutations but none with exon 12 mutations. The mutations were located in the second kinase domain of PDGFRalpha with 16 point mutations, and four larger deletions of 9 to 12 bp. All cases with mutations in the PDGFRalpha gene revealed wild-type KIT in common regions of mutation, ie, exons 9 and 11. Most interestingly, the occurrence of PDGFRalpha mutations was significantly associated with a higher frequency of epithelioid or mixed morphology (18 of 20 cases, P < 0.0001) and gastric location (all cases, P = 0.0008). Our data indicate that GISTs represent distinctive entities, differing in genetic, biological, and morphological features. (+info)
Endoscopic sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration yield in submucosal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
OBJECTIVE: To study the yield of endoscopic ultrasonographically guided fine-needle aspiration cytologic examination in the diagnosis of submucosal masses. METHODS: From 1999 to 2003, 10 patients underwent ultrasonographically guided fine-needle aspiration for the cytologic diagnosis of submucosal masses in our institution. The endoscopic ultrasonography records and the cytology database were consulted, and the reports were analyzed, as were slide material and the technical aspects related to these procedures. All procedures were performed under conscious sedation and cardiorespiratory monitoring on an outpatient basis. Ten patients (4 men and 6 women; mean age, 60.8 years) were studied. RESULTS: Eight lesions were located in the stomach, and 2 were located in the esophagus, with a mean diameter of 3.3 cm. An experienced cytopathologist was present on-site during all procedures for assessment of adequacy and preliminary cytologic examination. Cytologic diagnoses were obtained in 8 cases as follows: 6 gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 1 organizing submucosal hematoma, and 1 low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-associated lymphoma. Two cases consisted of scant gastric epithelium only and were considered nondiagnostic. The cytologic diagnoses guided further clinical treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonographically guided fine-needle aspiration with cytopathologic analysis has a high accuracy rate (80%) for diagnosing submucosal lesions. These findings potentially affect clinical decision making. (+info)