Delayed gastric emptying after Billroth I pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy: effect of postoperative time and cisapride.
OBJECTIVE: To study the recovery course of gastric emptying after Billroth I pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) and therapeutic effects of cisapride. METHODS: To examine gastric emptying, acetaminophen was given, admixed in a pasty liquid meal, to 16 patients undergoing PPPD before surgery and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Cisapride was given orally to 10 patients before they received the acetaminophen regimen. Electrogastrography was performed at 2 weeks to 1 month after surgery in eight patients and at 6 to 12 months after surgery in seven patients. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was delayed but returned to the preoperative level by 6 months after surgery. Pretreatment with cisapride accelerated gastric emptying during months 1 to 6 but not during months 6 to 12 after surgery. Electrogastrography frequently showed tachygastria 2 weeks to 1 month after surgery, but seldom 6 to 12 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: After Billroth I PPPD, gastric emptying is delayed but recovers by 6 months after surgery. Tachygastria may play a part in the pathogenesis of delayed gastric emptying, but it can be treated with cisapride. (+info)
Erythromycin enhances early postoperative contractility of the denervated whole stomach as an esophageal substitute.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether early postoperative administration of erythromycin accelerates the spontaneous motor recovery process after elevation of the denervated whole stomach up to the neck. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Spontaneous motor recovery after gastric denervation is a slow process that progressively takes place over years. METHODS: Erythromycin was administered as follows: continuous intravenous (i.v.) perfusion until postoperative day 10 in ten whole stomach (WS) patients at a dose of either 1 g (n = 5) or 2 g (n = 5) per day; oral intake at a dose of 1 g/day during 1.5 to 8 months after surgery in 11 WS patients, followed in 7 of them by discontinuation of the drug during 2 to 4 weeks. Gastric motility was assessed with intraluminal perfused catheters in these 21 patients, in 23 WS patients not receiving erythromycin, and in 11 healthy volunteers. A motility index was established by dividing the sum of the areas under the curves of >9 mmHg contractions by the time of recording. RESULTS: The motility index after IV or oral administration of erythromycin at and after surgery was significantly higher than that without erythromycin (i.v., 1 g: p = 0.0090; i.v., 2 g: p = 0.0090; oral, 1 g: p = 0.0017). It was similar to that in healthy volunteers (i.v., 1 g: p = 0.2818; oral, 1 g: p = 0.7179) and to that in WS patients with >3 years of follow-up who never received erythromycin (i.v., 1 g: p = 0.2206; oral, 1 g: p = 0.8326). The motility index after discontinuation of the drug was similar or superior to that recorded under medication in four patients who did not experience any modification of their alimentary comfort, whereas it dropped dramatically parallel to deterioration of the alimentary comfort in three patients. CONCLUSIONS: Early postoperative contractility of the denervated whole stomach pulled up to the neck under either i.v. or oral erythromycin is similar to that recovered spontaneously beyond 3 years of follow-up. In some patients, this booster effect persists after discontinuation of the drug. (+info)
Octreotide acetate long-acting formulation versus open-label subcutaneous octreotide acetate in malignant carcinoid syndrome.
PURPOSE: Subcutaneous (SC) octreotide acetate effectively relieves the diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome but requires long-term multiple injections daily. A microencapsulated long-acting formulation (LAR) of octreotide acetate has been developed for once-monthly intramuscular dosing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized trial compared double-blinded octreotide LAR at 10, 20, and 30 mg every 4 weeks with open-label SC octreotide every 8 hours for the treatment of carcinoid syndrome. Seventy-nine patients controlled with treatment of SC octreotide 0.3 to 0.9 mg/d whose symptoms returned during a washout period and who returned for at least the week 20 evaluation constituted the efficacy-assessable population. RESULTS: Complete or partial treatment success was comparable in each of the four arms of the study (SC, 58.3%; 10 mg, 66.7%; 20 mg, 71.4%; 30 mg, 61.9%; P> or =.72 for all pairwise comparisons). Control of stool frequency was similar in all treatment groups. Flushing episodes were best controlled in the 20-mg LAR and SC groups; the 10-mg LAR treatment was least effective in the control of flushing. Treatment was well tolerated by patients in all four groups. CONCLUSION: Once octreotide steady-state concentrations are achieved, octreotide LAR controls the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome at least as well as SC octreotide. A starting dose of 20 mg of octreotide LAR is recommended. Supplemental SC octreotide is needed for approximately 2 weeks after initiation of octreotide LAR treatment. Occasional rescue SC injections may be required for possibly 2 to 3 months until steady-state octreotide levels from the LAR formulation are achieved. (+info)
Is maintenance therapy always necessary for patients with ulcerative colitis in remission?
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of sulphasalazine and mesalazine in preventing relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis is well known. It is less clear how long such maintenance should be continued, and if the duration of disease remission is a factor that affects the risk of recurrence. AIM: To determine whether the duration of disease remission affects the relapse rate, by comparing the efficacy of a delayed-release mesalazine (Asacol, Bracco S.p.A., Milan, Italy) against placebo in patients with ulcerative colitis with short- and long-duration of disease remission. METHODS: 112 patients (66 male, 46 female, mean age 35 years), with intermittent chronic ulcerative colitis in clinical, endoscopic and histological remission with sulphasalazine or mesalazine for at least 1 year, were included in the study. Assuming that a lower duration of remission might be associated with a higher relapse rate, the patients were stratified according to the length of their disease remission, prior to randomization into Group A (Asacol 26, placebo 35) in remission from 1 to 2 years, or Group B (Asacol 28, placebo 23) in remission for over 2 years, median 4 years. Patients were treated daily with oral Asacol 1.2 g vs. placebo, for a follow-up period of 1 year. RESULTS: We employed an intention-to-treat analysis. In Group A, whilst no difference was found between the two treatments after 6 months, mesalazine was significantly more effective than placebo in preventing relapse at 12 months [Asacol 6/26 (23%), placebo 17/35 (49%), P = 0.035, 95% Cl: 48-2.3%]. In contrast, in Group B no statistically significant difference was observed between the two treatments, either at 6 or 12 months [Asacol 5/28 (18%), placebo 6/23 (26%), P = 0.35, 95% Cl: 31-14%] of follow-up. Patients in group B were older, and had the disease and remission duration for longer, than those in Group A. CONCLUSIONS: Mesalazine prophylaxis is necessary for the prevention of relapse by patients with ulcerative colitis in remission for less than 2 years, but this study casts doubt over whether continuous maintenance treatment is necessary in patients with prolonged clinical, endoscopic and histological remission, who are at very low risk of relapse. (+info)
Bile salts: natural detergents for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.
The development of new, safe, topical microbicides for intravaginal use for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases is imperative. Previous studies have suggested that bile salts may inhibit human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, their activities against other sexually transmitted pathogens have not been reported. To further explore the potential role of bile salts in preventing sexually transmitted diseases, we examined the in vitro activities and cytotoxicities of select bile salts against Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus (types 1 and 2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and human immunodeficiency virus in comparison to those of nonoxynol-9 and benzalkonium chloride using both primary cells and cell lines derived from the human female genital tract. We found that taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate and a combination of glycocholic acid and taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate showed excellent activity against all of the pathogens assayed. Moreover, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate alone or in combination was less cytotoxic than nonoxynol-9 and benzalkonium chloride. Thus, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate alone or in combination warrants further evaluation as a candidate topical microbicidal agent. (+info)
Clinical considerations in GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) therapy: focus on cisapride.
Heartburn, the major symptom of gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD), is a common condition that is usually self-treated with over-the-counter products. For patients with severe or recurrent symptoms of GERD, pharmacologic therapy includes acid suppression with H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors, and, alternatively, the use of prokinetic agents. While all of these are efficacious, given its high efficacy in nonerosive and mild-to-moderate erosive esophagitis, the prokinetic agent cisapride deserves significant consideration in this patient population. (+info)
Influence of erythromycin on establishment of feeding in preterm infants: observations from a randomised controlled trial.
AIM: To determine the effect of erythromycin on the establishment of enteral feeding in ventilated infants < 31 weeks gestation. METHODS: Erythromycin was randomly allocated as an antimicrobial treatment for the first 7 days of life in 76 infants: 35 received erythromycin and 41 acted as controls. Feed toleration, time taken to establish full enteral feeding, vomiting, prescription of glycerine suppositories and occurrence of necrotising enterocolitis were recorded. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the outcomes. The infants treated with erythromycin reached full feeding at a median (quartile) age of 8 (5-12) days compared with 9 (6-14) days for controls. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous erythromycin in antimicrobial doses is unlikely to benefit the introduction of feeding in preterm infants. (+info)
Characterization of a Na+-dependent betaine transporter with Cl- channel properties in squid motor neurons.
Most marine invertebrates, including squids, use transporters to accumulate organic osmolytes such as betaine, to prevent water loss when exposed to elevated salinity. Although a limited number of flux studies have shown the Na+ dependence of betaine transport, nothing is known about the electrogenic properties of osmolyte transporters. We used whole cell and perforated-patch voltage-clamp techniques to characterize the electrical properties of the betaine transporter in giant fiber lobe motor neurons of the squid Lolliguncula brevis. Betaine activated a large, Cl--selective current that was reversibly blocked by 100 microM niflumic acid (97 +/- 2% block after 40 s, SD; n = 7) and partially inhibited by 500 microM SITS (29 +/- 11%; n = 5). The Cl- current was Na+ dependent and was virtually eliminated by isotonic replacement of Na+ with Li+, NMDG+, or Tris+. Concentration-response data revealed an EC50 in a physiologically relevant range for these animals of 5.1 +/- 0.9 mM (n = 11). In vertebrates, the betaine transporter is structurally related to the GABA transporter, and although GABA did not directly activate the betaine-induced current, it reversibly reduced betaine responses by 34 +/- 14% (n = 8). Short-term changes in osmolality alone did not activate the Cl- current, but when combined with betaine, Cl- currents increased in hypertonic solutions and decreased in hypotonic solutions. Activation of the betaine transporter and Cl- current in hypertonic conditions may affect both volume regulation and excitability in L. brevis motor neurons. This study is the first report of a novel betaine transporter in neurons that can act as a Cl- channel. (+info)