5-HT2B-receptor antagonist LY-272015 is antihypertensive in DOCA-salt-hypertensive rats.
We previously demonstrated a change in the receptors mediating 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced contraction in arteries of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-hypertensive rats. Specifically, contraction to 5-HT is mediated primarily by 5-HT2A receptors in arteries from normotensive sham rats and by both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in arteries from hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that the 5-HT2B receptor may play a role in maintaining the high blood pressure of DOCA-salt-hypertensive rats, and herein we provide data connecting in vitro and in vivo findings. The endothelium-denuded isolated superior mesenteric artery of DOCA-salt rats displayed a marked increase in maximum contraction to the newly available 5-HT2B-receptor agonist BW-723C86 compared with that of arteries from sham rats, confirming that the 5-HT2B receptor plays a greater role in 5-HT-induced contraction in arteries from DOCA-salt rats. In chronically instrumented rats, the 5-HT2B-receptor antagonist LY-272015 (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg iv at 30-min intervals) was given cumulatively 1 time/wk during 4 wk of continued DOCA-salt treatment. LY-272015 did not reduce blood pressure of the sham-treated rats at any time or dose. However, LY-272015 (1.0 and 3. 0 mg/kg) significantly reduced mean blood pressure in a subgroup of week 3 (-20 mmHg) and week 4 DOCA-salt (-40 mmHg) rats that had extremely high blood pressure (mean arterial blood pressure approximately 200 mmHg). Blockade of 5-HT2B receptors by in vivo administration of LY-272015 (3.0 mg/kg) was verified by observing reduced 5-HT-induced contraction in rat stomach fundus, the tissue from which the 5-HT2B receptor was originally cloned. These data support the novel hypothesis that 5-HT2B-receptor expression is induced during the development of DOCA-salt hypertension and contributes to the maintenance of severe blood pressure elevations. (+info)
Regional and functional differences of 5-hydroxytryptamine-receptor subtypes in guinea pig stomach.
Functions and the presence of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors in the fundus, corpus and antrum of the guinea pig stomach were examined by measuring contractile force and acetylcholine (ACh) release. Stimulation of the 5-HT1 receptor caused tetrodotoxin (TTX)-insensitive relaxations in the preparations from 3 regions. Stimulation of the 5-HT2 receptor caused TTX-insensitive contractions in the preparations of fundus and antrum. Stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors caused contractions that were sensitive to TTX and atropine and enhanced the outflow of [3H]ACh from preparations of only antrum. Stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors caused contractions of antral strips and decreased relaxations of corporal strips and enhanced the outflow of [3H]ACh from the preparations of both corpus and antrum. In the guinea pig stomach, the fundus possesses relaxant 5-HT1 receptor < contractile 5-HT2 receptors and caused the contractile response to 5-HT. The corpus possesses relaxant 5-HT1 receptors and relaxant receptors other than 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors > contractile 5-HT4 receptor, and therefore 5-HT caused relaxations. The antrum possesses relaxant 5-HT1 receptor < contractile 5-HT2, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, and thus 5-HT caused contractions. (+info)
Parallel pathways mediate inhibitory effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and nitric oxide in canine fundus.
1. The gastric adaptation reflex is activated by the release of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) inhibitory transmitters, including nitric oxide (NO) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The role of NO in this reflex is not disputed, but some investigators suggest that NO synthesis is stimulated by VIP in post-junctional cells or in nerve terminals. We investigated whether the effects of these transmitters are mediated by independent pathways in the canine gastric fundus. 2. VIP and NO produced concentration-dependent relaxation of the canine fundus. Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) reduced relaxation induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS; 0.5-8 Hz), but had no effect on responses to exogenous VIP and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10 microM). 3. Oxyhaemoglobin reduced relaxations produced by EFS and SNP. Oxyhaemoglobin also reduced relaxation responses to low concentrations of VIP (<10 nM), but these effects were non-specific and mimicked by methaemoglobin which had no effect on nitrergic responses. 4. A blocker of guanylyl cyclase, 1H-[1,2,4]oxidiazolo [4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one, (ODQ) inhibited responses to EFS, SNP and DETA/NONOate (an NO.donor), but had no effect on responses to VIP. cis-N-(2-phenylcyclopentil)-azacyclotridec-1en-2-amine monohydrochloride (MDL 12,330A), a blocker of adenylyl cyclase, reduced responses to EFS, VIP and forskolin, but did not affect responses to SNP. 5. Levels of cyclic GMP were enhanced by the NO donor S-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) but were unaffected by VIP (1 microM). The increase in cyclic GMP in response to SNAP was blocked by ODQ. 6. The results suggest that at least two transmitters, possibly NO and VIP, mediate relaxation responses in the canine fundus. NO and VIP mediate responses via cyclic GMP- and cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms, respectively. No evidence was found for a serial cascade in which VIP is coupled to NO-dependent responses. (+info)
Expression of constitutive nitric oxide synthase in rat and human gastrointestinal tract.
The aim of this study was to determine the expression of constitutive NO synthases (ecNOS and bNOS) at the protein level in rat and human gastrointestinal tract. We established a quantitative Western blotting method for detection and quantification of ecNOS and bNOS in both species. Human gastric fundus was further analyzed by immunohistochemistry. EcNOS expression at the protein level could be quantified in different organs of the rat gastrointestinal tract and in human gastric mucosal biopsies. Immunohistochemistry of gastric fundus revealed that immunoreactivity for ecNOS was localized mainly in the endothelium of small vessels. In rats, expression of bNOS at the protein level was highest in esophagus. By means of immunohistochemistry of human gastric fundus, immunoreactivity was detected mainly in the plexus of Auerbach. We conclude that isoforms of constitutive nitric oxide synthase can be identified and quantified at the protein level both in rat and human gastrointestinal tract. The presence of bNOS in nerve tissue supports previous observations that NO serves as a transmitter in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerves in human esophagus and stomach. The observation that ecNOS has been found mainly in endothelial cells suggests the involvement of NO in the regulation of mucosal blood flow. (+info)
Pharmacological comparison between the nitrergic responses produced by intramural nerve stimulation and exogenous NO-donors in rat gastric fundus.
To investigate whether the nitrergic nerve-mediated smooth muscle relaxation is caused by authentic nitric oxide (NO) and is mediated via guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP), we compared the response to electrical field stimulation of nitrergic nerve (EFS) with other NO-related responses in rat gastric fundus strips. EFS, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), and acidified NaNO2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-mediated NO all produced relaxation and elevated cyclic GMP level in rat fundus strips. However, the basal and stimulated cyclic GMP levels were significantly lower than the basal level in aorta (40+/-4 pmol/g wet tissue). Methylene blue and 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione (LY83583), both known as soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitors and O2- generators that scavenge NO, reduced the elevation of cyclic GMP level by all stimuli and inhibited the relaxations only in response to NaNO2 and iNOS-mediated NO but not to the other stimuli. These results suggest that in the rat gastric fundus strips the relaxations induced by not only nitrergic nerve but also SNP and SNAP are not associated with cyclic GMP production, in contrast to the relaxations mediated by authentic NO. (+info)
Time course of isolated rat fundus response to muscarinic agonists: a measure of intrinsic efficacy.
The establishment of a dose-response relationship and its quantification is the usual procedure for analysing drug action on an isolated organ. However, the time course of the effect seems to be an inherent characteristic of the agonist which produces it. In our study, we have analyzed the time-response curves of four cholinergic agonists (acetylcholine, methacholine, carbachol and bethanechol) which produce tonic contractions of the isolated rat gastric fundus. The order of affinity of agonists to muscarinic receptors on the rat fundus were carbachol > bethanechol > methacholine > acetylcholine (K(A) values: 46 +/- 12, 84 +/- 21, 380 +/- 110 and 730 +/- 120 nM, respectively). The effective concentrations which produced 60% of the maximal response (EC60) were used for establishing the time-response curves. The time-response curves were also recorded after partial alkylation of muscarinic receptors with phenoxybenzamine, after exposure of the isolated rat fundus to physostigmine and after addition of supramaximal concentrations of the agonists. The experimental time-response curve for acetylcholine was on the extreme left, followed by curves for methacholine, bethanechol and carbachol, respectively. Phenoxybenzamine and supramaximal doses of the agonists did not change the order of response development in time, but supramaximal doses shifted all curves to the left and phenoxybenzamine shifted all time-response curves to the right. Only physostigmine shifted the time-response curve for methacholine to the right. The results of our study suggest that the response rate of the isolated rat gastric fundus to cholinergic agonists depends on the intrinsic activity of these agents, but not on their affinity for muscarinic receptors. (+info)
Properties of isolated gastric enterochromaffin-like cells.
The gastric enterochromaffin-like cell (ECL) has been studied in gastric fundic glands by confocal microscopy and as a purified cell preparation by video imaging of calcium signaling and measurements of histamine release. Regulation of gastric acid secretion is largely due to alterations of histamine activation of the H2 receptor on the parietal cell and can be divided into central neural regulation, with direct actions of neuronally released mediators and into peripheral regulation by substances released from other endocrine cells. Gastric neuronal stimulation of acid secretion by alteration of ECL cell function is probably mediated by pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) receptors on the ECL cell, which activate calcium signaling and histamine release. Peripheral stimulation of acid secretion via the ECL cell is largely mediated by gastrin stimulation of calcium signaling and histamine release. Gastric neuronal inhibition of ECL cell function is probably mediated by galanin inhibition of calcium signaling, and histamine release and peripheral inhibition of ECL cell function is mainly due to somatostatin release from D cells. (+info)
High-salt diet induces gastric epithelial hyperplasia and parietal cell loss, and enhances Helicobacter pylori colonization in C57BL/6 mice.
A high-salt diet in humans and experimental animals is known to cause gastritis, has been associated with a high risk of atrophic gastritis, and is considered a gastric tumor promoter. In laboratory rodents, salt is known to cause gastritis, and when coadministered, it promotes the carcinogenic effects of known gastric carcinogens. Because Helicobacter pylori has been associated with a progression from gastritis to gastric cancer, we designed a study to determine whether excessive dietary NaCl would have an effect on colonization and gastritis in the mouse model of H. pylori infection. Seventy-two, 8-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were infected with H. pylori strain Sydney, and 36 control mice were dosed with vehicle only. One-half of the infected and control mice were fed a high-salt diet (7.5% versus 0.25%) for 2 weeks prior to dosing and throughout the entire experiment. Twelve infected and 6 control animals from the high-salt and normal diet groups were euthanized at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. At 8 and 16 weeks postinfection (WPI), the colony-forming units per gram of tissue were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the corpus and antrum of animals in the high-salt diet group compared with those on the normal diet. Quantitative urease was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at 4 and 8 WPI in the corpus and antrum of animals on the high-salt diet when compared with controls. At 16 WPI, mice in both the normal and the high-salt diet groups developed moderate to marked atrophic gastritis of the corpus in response to H. pylori infection. However, the gastric pits of the corpus mucosa in mice on the high-salt diet were elongated and colonized by H. pylori more frequently than those in mice on the normal diet. The high-salt diet was also associated with a significant increase in proliferation in the proximal corpus and antrum and a multifocal reduction in parietal cell numbers in the proximal corpus, resulting in the elongation of gastric pits. We conclude that excessive NaCl intake enhances H. pylori colonization in mice and in humans and that chronic salt intake may exacerbate gastritis by increasing H. pylori colonization. Furthermore, elevated salt intake may potentiate H. pylori-associated carcinogenesis by inducing proliferation, pit cell hyperplasia, and glandular atrophy. (+info)