Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer.
BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC. (+info)
Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats.
The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion. (+info)
Heating garlic inhibits its ability to suppress 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced DNA adduct formation in rat mammary tissue.
The present studies compared the impact of heating, either by microwave or convection oven, on the ability of garlic to reduce the in vivo bioactivation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in 55-d-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. In study 1, rats were fed a semipurified casein-based diet and treated by gastric gavage thrice weekly for 2-wk with crushed garlic (0.7 g in 2 mL corn oil) or the carrier prior to DMBA treatment (50 mg/kg body weight). Providing crushed garlic reduced by 64% (P < 0.05) the quantity DMBA-induced DNA adducts present in mammary epithelial cells compared to controls. In study 2, microwave treatment for 60 s, but not 30 s, decreased (P < 0.05) the protection provided by garlic against DMBA-induced adduct formation. In study 3, allowing crushed garlic to stand for 10 min prior to microwave heating for 60 s significantly (P < 0.05) restored its anticarcinogenic activity. Microwave heating of garlic for 30 s resulted in a 90% loss of alliinase activity. Heating in a convection oven (study 4) also completely blocked the ability of uncrushed garlic to retard DMBA bioactivation. Study 5 revealed that providing either 0.105 micromol diallyl disulfide or S-allyl cysteine by gastric gavage thrice weekly for 2 wk was effective in retarding DMBA bioactivation but isomolar alliin was not. These studies provide evidence that alliinase may be important for the formation of allyl sulfur compounds that contribute to a depression in DMBA metabolism and bioactivation. (+info)
An organosulfur compound isolated from oil-macerated garlic extract, and its antimicrobial effect.
An organosulfur compound was isolated from oil-macerated garlic extract by silica gel column chromatography and preparative TLC. From the results of NMR, IR, and MS analyses, its structure was determined as E-4,5,9-trithiadeca-1,7-diene-9-oxide (iso-E-10-devinylajoene, iso-E-10-DA). This compound was different from E-4,5,9-trithiadeca-1,6-diene-9-oxide (E-10-devinylajoene, E-10-DA) only in the position of a double bond. Iso-E-10-DA had antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus, and yeasts at the concentration lower than 100 micrograms/ml, but Gram-negative bacteria were not inhibited at the same concentration. The antimicrobial activity of iso-E-10-DA was inferior to those of similar oil-macerated garlic extract compounds such as E-ajoene, Z-ajoene, and Z-10-DA. From these results, it was suggested that trans structure and/or the position of double bond of iso-E-10-DA reduce the antimicrobial activity. (+info)
Antimicrobial activity of the thiosulfinates isolated from oil-macerated garlic extract.
Three thiosulfinates were isolated from oil-macerated garlic extract, and their structures were identified as 2-propene-1-sulfinothioic acid S-(Z,E)-1-propenyl ester [AllS(O)SPn-(Z,E)], 2-propenesulfinothioic acid S-methyl ester [AllS(O)SMe], and methanesulfinothioic acid S-(Z,E)-1-propenyl ester [MeS(O)SPn-(Z,E)]. This is the first report of isolating these thiosulfinates from oil-macerated garlic extract. Antimicrobial activities of AllS(O)SPn-(Z,E) and AllS(O)SMe against Gram-positive and negative bacteria and yeasts were compared with 2-propene-1-sulfinothioic acid S-2-propenyl ester [AllS(O)SAll, allicin] which is well-known as the major thiosulfinate in garlic. Antimicrobial activity of AllS(O)SMe and AllS(O)SPn-(Z,E) were comparable and inferior to that of allicin, respectively. This result suggested that the antimicrobial activity of 2-propene sulfinothioic acid S-alk(en)yl esters were affected by alk(en)yl groups. The order for antimicrobial activity was: allyl > or = methyl > propenyl. (+info)
Antibacterial effect of garlic and omeprazole on Helicobacter pylori.
The antibacterial effect of a home-made raw garlic extract and commercial garlic tablets alone and in combination with antibiotics or omeprazole was determined against clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. MIC values of raw garlic extract and three types of commercial garlic tablets ranged from 10,000 to 17,500 mg/L. When MIC values of the commercial tablets were based on the allicin content, no differences between the three types were observed. The combination of garlic and omeprazole, studied with killing curves, showed a synergic effect which was concentration dependent. Further clinical evaluation of garlic in combination with the conventional agents for H. pylori treatment seems warranted. (+info)
Formation of 14,15-hepoxilins of the A(3) and B(3) series through a 15-lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase present in garlic roots.
We report herein for the first time the formation by freshly grown garlic roots and the structural characterization of 14,15-epoxide positional analogs of the hepoxilins formed via the 15-lipoxygenase-induced oxygenation of arachidonic acid. These compounds are formed through the combined actions of a 15(S)-lipoxygenase and a hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HPETE) isomerase. The compounds were formed when either arachidonic acid or 15-HPETE were used as substrates. Both the "A"-type and the "B"-type products are formed although the B-type compounds are formed in greater relative quantities. Chiral phase high performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed the formation of hepoxilins from 15(S)- but not 15(R)-HPETE, indicating high stereoselectivity of the isomerase. Additionally, the lipoxygenase was of the 15(S)-type as only 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was formed when arachidonic acid was used as substrate. The structures of the products were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the methyl ester trimethylsilyl ether derivatives as well as after characteristic epoxide ring opening catalytically with hydrogen leading to dihydroxy products. That 15(S)-lipoxygenase activity is of functional importance in garlic was shown by the inhibition of root growth by BW 755C, a dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a lipoxygenase inhibitor. Additional biological studies were carried out with the purified intact 14(S), 15(S)-hepoxilins, which were investigated for hepoxilin-like actions in causing the release of intracellular calcium in human neutrophils. The 14,15-hepoxilins dose-dependently caused a rise in cytosolic calcium, but their actions were 5-10-fold less active than 11(S), 12(S)-hepoxilins derived from 12(S)-HPETE. These studies provide evidence that 15(S)-lipoxygenase is functionally important to normal root growth and that HPETE isomerization into the hepoxilin-like structure may be ubiquitous; the hepoxilin-evoked release of calcium in human neutrophils, which is receptor-mediated, is sensitive to the location within the molecule of the hydroxyepoxide functionality. (+info)
Protective effects of garlic juice against embryotoxicity of methylmercuric chloride administered to pregnant Fischer 344 rats.
In order to investigate the beneficial effects of 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg Korean garlic juice against the embryotoxicity of 20 mg/kg methylmercury chloride (MMC, CH3HgCl), pregnant Fisher 344 rats were simultaneously orally administered on day 7 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation the dams were laparotomized under ether anesthesia, and the fetuses were removed and examined for toxicity of methylmercury. Garlic juice depressed the toxicity in terms of some parameters. In the case of simultaneous treatment with 0.1 g/kg garlic juice and MMC, rates of increase were 17.5% in maternal body weight, 13.2% and 41.9% in fetal and litters' weight respectively, and 37.0% in fetal survival rate. Decreasing rates were 10.0% in maternal death rate, and 6.9% and 31.3% in pre- and post-implantation loss respectively. Decreasing rates of mercury levels in dams were 67.2% in liver, 57.6% in brain, 47.2% in kidney, 42.1% in spleen and 40.9% in blood. As well, decreasing rates of mercury level in fetuses were 54.9% in all body burden, 55.9% in liver, 46.7% in kidney and 37% in brain, respectively. The number of fetal ossification centers were reduced by 23.8% to 58.0% following simultaneous treatment with 1.0 g/kg garlic juice. These findings indicated that garlic juice effectively inhibited the embryotoxicity of methylmercury in pregnant Fischer 344 rats. (+info)