Gangrenous cystitis: a rare cause of colovesical fistula.
A case of gangrenous cystitis presenting as a colovesical fistula in an elderly woman is described. The literature on this rare condition is reviewed. (+info)
Traditional bone setter's gangrene.
Traditional bone setter's gangrene (TBSG) is the term we use to describe the sequelae sometimes seen after treatment with native fracture splints. Twenty five consecutive complications were recorded in 25 patients aged between 5-50 years with a median age of 10 years. The major complication of the native fracture splint treatment was distal limb gangrene necessitating proximal amputations in 15 cases. (+info)
Thigh isosulfan blue injection in the treatment of postoperative lymphatic complications.
Postoperative lymphatic complications after infrainguinal revascularization are troublesome and potentially serious complications. Vital dye injection into the web spaces of the foot has been recommended as a simple and reliable method to identify lymphatic channel disruption before groin exploration. Such distal injections, however, are not always successful. We describe a modified technique using a proximal thigh injection with isosulfan blue, which is faster and more useful than the distal web space method. (+info)
Efficacy of dorsal pedal artery bypass in limb salvage for ischemic heel ulcers.
PURPOSE: Although pedal artery bypass has been established as an effective and durable limb salvage procedure, the utility of these bypass grafts in limb salvage, specifically for the difficult problem of heel ulceration, remains undefined. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 432 pedal bypass grafts placed for indications of ischemic gangrene or ulceration isolated to either the forefoot (n = 336) or heel (n = 96). Lesion-healing rates and life-table analysis of survival, patency, and limb salvage were compared for forefoot versus heel lesions. Preoperative angiograms were reviewed to evaluate the influence of an intact pedal arch on heel lesion healing. RESULTS: Complete healing rates for forefoot and heel lesions were similar (90.5% vs 86.5%, P =.26), with comparable rates of major lower extremity amputation (9.8% vs 9.3%, P =.87). Time to complete healing in the heel lesion group ranged from 13 to 716 days, with a mean of 139 days. Preoperative angiography demonstrated an intact pedal arch in 48.8% of the patients with heel lesions. Healing and graft patency rates in these patients with heel lesions were independent of the presence of an intact arch, with healing rates of 90.2% and 83.7% (P =.38) and 2-year patency rates of 73.4% and 67.0% in complete and incomplete pedal arches, respectively. Comparison of 5-year primary and secondary patency rates between the forefoot and heel lesion groups were essentially identical, with primary rates of 56.9% versus 62.1% (P =.57) and secondary rates of 67.2% versus 60.3% (P =.50), respectively. CONCLUSION: Bypass grafts to the dorsalis pedis artery provide substantial perfusion to the posterior foot such that the resulting limb salvage and healing rates for revascularized heel lesions is excellent and comparable with those observed for ischemic forefoot pathology. (+info)
Nontraumatic lower extremity amputations in the Medicare end-stage renal disease population.
BACKGROUND: Nontraumatic lower limb amputation is a serious complication of both diabetic neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease. Many people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) suffer from advanced progression of these diseases. This study presents descriptive information on the rate of lower limb amputation among people with ESRD who are covered by the Medicare program. METHODS: Using hospital bill data for the years 1991 through 1994 from the Health Care Financing Administration's ESRD program management and medical information system (PMMIS), amputations were based on ICD9 coding. These hospitalizations were then linked back to the PMMIS enrollment database for calculation of rates. RESULTS: The rate of lower limb amputation increased during the four-year period from 4.8 per 100 person years in 1991 to 6.2 in 1994. Among persons whose renal failure was attributed to diabetic nephropathy, the rates in 1991 and 1994 were 11.8 and 13.8, respectively. The rate among diabetic persons with ESRD was 10 times as great as among the diabetic population at large. Two thirds died within two years following the first amputation. CONCLUSIONS: The ESRD population is at an extremely high risk of lower limb amputation. Coordinated programs to screen for high-risk feet and to provide regular foot care for those at high risk combined with guidelines for treatment and referral of ulceration are needed. (+info)
Necrotizing soft tissue infections.
Necrotizing soft tissue infections are a group of highly lethal infections that typically occur after trauma or surgery. Many individual infectious entities have been described, but they all have similar pathophysiologies, clinical features, and treatment approaches. The essentials of successful treatment include early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotics, and supportive intensive treatment unit care. The two commonest pitfalls in management are failure of early diagnosis and inadequate surgical debridement. These life-threatening infections are often mistaken for cellulitis or innocent wound infections, and this is responsible for diagnostic delay. Tissue gas is not a universal finding in necrotizing soft tissue infections. This misconception also contributes to diagnostic errors. Incision and drainage is an inappropriate surgical strategy for necrotizing soft tissue infections; excisional debridement is needed. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be useful, but it is not as important as aggressive surgical therapy. Despite advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive treatment unit medicine, the mortality of necrotizing soft tissue infections is still high. This article emphasizes common treatment principles for all of these infections, and reviews some of the more important individual necrotizing soft tissue infectious entities. (+info)
Epidemiology of the incidence of oro-facial noma: a study of cases in Dakar, Senegal, 1981-1993.
Oro-facial noma is an oral gangrene occurring in early childhood in extremely poor areas. As many as 70-90% of those with noma die, and to date, there is no satisfactory treatment to fight this disease. Within the context of the World Health Organization international program against noma, a 13-year retrospective study based on clinical records was carried out in Dakar, Senegal in an attempt to understand the epidemiology of noma. Between 1981 and 1993, 199 cases of noma were identified, among them; 36.7% were acute cases and 63.3% showed sequelae. Chronic sequelae of noma were seen in patients 2-41 years of age, but the acute phase of noma was found only in young children (77.7% in those 1-4 years of age, maximum age = 9 years, mean age +/- SD age = 3.4 +/- 1.9 years). A total of 73.1% of the cases with acute disease were reported in the Dakar, Diourbel and Kaolack regions during the dry season (57.0% of the cases). The lesions of progressive noma were localized mainly on the upper lip (42.4%) and the cheek (31.1%). A total of 96.9% of the patients with acute diseases were had poor general health with serious associated diseases; only 20.0% had a good vital prognosis. The development of epidemiologic surveillance programs for noma should be a public health priority in Senegal. (+info)
Adjunctive techniques to improve patency of distal prosthetic bypass grafts: polytetrafluoroethylene with remote arteriovenous fistulae versus vein cuffs.
PURPOSE: The long-term patency for infrapopliteal bypass grafting with prosthetic material is less than optimal. Our experience demonstrates a 40% patency at 2 years for these grafts. Several adjuvant techniques have been developed to improve patency rates, two of which are a remote distal arteriovenous fistula and the creation of a distal vein cuff. This study summarizes our experience with these two techniques. METHODS: Between 1987 and 1998, 107 bypass graftings were performed to the below-knee popliteal or tibial vessels with the use of polytetrafluoroethylene. One group (48 bypass grafts) had polytetrafluoroethylene with adjuvant distal arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), and a second group (59 bypass grafts) was reconstructed with a distal vein cuff (DVC). The type of bypass grafting that was performed was based on surgeon experience and preference. Indications and demographics were similar in the two groups. All patients underwent the operation for limb-threatening ischemia, including gangrene (DAVF, 23%; DVC, 9%), ulceration (DAVF, 27%; DVC, 51%), and rest pain (DAVF, 50%; DVC, 40%). RESULTS: The primary patency rate was 48% and 38% at 3 years for DAVF and DVC, respectively. Secondary patency was 48% and 47% at 3 years, with limb salvage rates of 76% and 92% for DAVF and DVC, respectively (P <.05). Attempted thrombectomy without continuation of patency was undertaken in two patients with a failed DAVF. Attempts at restoration after thrombosis were made in eight patients with failed DVCs. Five patients underwent thrombectomy, of which four procedures were successful. Three patients had thrombolytic therapy, and two of these remained patent. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant techniques, including DAVF and DVC, produce acceptable long-term patency and limb salvage rates in bypass grafts performed to the below-knee popliteal and tibial vessels. This study suggests that DVCs may offer improved limb salvage rates and a greater opportunity for revision when bypass graft failure occurs. (+info)