(1/1980) The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains.
The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface. (+info)
(2/1980) Partial purification and properties of porcine thymus lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase.
Porcine thymus lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase was purified by a simple procedure. In the final step of isoelectric focusing the enzyme was separated into two peaks of pI 6.3 (peak I) and 7.0 (peak II), which showed 3,600- and 4,000-fold enhancement of lactosylceramide-hydrolysing activity, respectively. The two peaks had identical mobility on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The apparent molecular weight was 34,000. Neither monosialoganglioside (GM1) nor galactosylceramide was hydrolysed by the purified enzyme fractions. The optimal pH was at 4.6, and sodium taurocholate was essential for the reaction. The apparent Km was 2.3 x 10-5 M. The reaction was stimulated by sodium chloride and linoleic acid, while it was strongly inhibited by Triton X-100 and bovine serum albumin. Galactosylceramide, p-nitrophenyl beta-galactoside, and p-nitrophenol were weak inhibitors. No effects of GM1 and galactose were observed on the hydrolysis of lactosylceramide. (+info)
(3/1980) Gangliosides of human kidney.
Five gangliosides isolated from human kidney have been characterized. The two main fractions were shown to be typical extraneural gangliosides in having lactose as their neutral carbohydrate moiety. Their structures were identified as: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-8)AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer. The two main hexosamine-containing gangliosides are structurally related to human blood group substances of glycosphingolipid nature. The following structures are postulated: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1) Cer. The third hexosamine-containing ganglioside belongs to a different series of glycolipids and was shown to have the structure of a major ganglioside of human brain: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc(beta1-4)[AcNeu(alpha2-3)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1- 1)Cer. The fatty acid structure of different gangliosides was shown to resemble that of neutral glycolipids of human kidney with the nonhydroxy acids C16:0, C22:0, and C24:0 as major components. (+info)
(4/1980) Lipolytic action of cholera toxin on fat cells. Re-examination of the concept implicating GM1 ganglioside as the native membrane receptor.
The possible role of galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM1) ganglioside in the lipolytic activity of cholera toxin on isolated fat cells has been examined. Analyses of the ganglioside content and composition of intact fat cells, their membranous ghosts, and the total particulate fraction of these cells indicate that N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide (GM3) represents the major ganglioside, with substantial amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM2) and smaller amounts of other higher homologues also present. Native GM1 was not detected in any of these preparations. Examination of the relative capacities of various exogenously added radiolabeled sphingolipids to bind to the cells indicated that GM2 and glucosylsphingosine were accumulated by the cells to extents comparable to GM1. Galactosylsphingosine and sulfatide also exhibited significant, although lesser, binding affinities for the cells. The adipocytes appeared to nonspecifically bind exogenously added GM1; saturation of binding sites for GM1 could not be observed up to the highest concentration tested (2 X 10(-4) M), wherein about 7 X 10(9) molecules were associated with the cells. Essentially all of this exogenously added GM1 was found bound to the plasma membrane "ghost" fraction. Investigation of the biological responses of the cells confirmed their sensitivities to both cholera toxin and epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis, as well as the lag period displayed during the toxin's action. While we could confirm that the toxin's lipolytic activity can be enhanced by prior treatment of the fat cells with GM1, several of the observed characteristics of this phenomenon differ from earlier reported findings. Accordingly, added GM1 was able to enhance only the subsequent rate, but not the extent, of toxin-stimulated glycerol release (lipolysis) from the cells. We also were unable to confirm the ability of GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity at either saturating or at low toxin concentrations. The limited ability of added GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity appeared in a unique bell-shaped dose-response manner. The inability of high levels of GM1 to stimulate a dose of toxin that was ineffective on native cells suggests that the earlier reported ability of crude brain gangliosides to accomplish this was due to some component other than GM1 in the crude extract. While several glycosphingolipids and some other carbohydrate-containing substances that were tested lacked the ability to mimic the enhancing effect of GM1, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside exhibited an effect similar to, although less pronounced than, that of GM1. The findings in these studies are unable to lend support to the earlier hypothesis that (a) GM1 is cholera toxin's naturally occurring membrane receptor on native fat cells, and (b) the ability of exogenously added GM1 to enhance the toxin's lipolytic activity represents the specific creation of additional natural receptors on adipocytes... (+info)
(5/1980) Atherosclerotic aortic gangliosides enhance integrin-mediated platelet adhesion to collagen.
Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, accumulate in atherosclerotic vessels. Their role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is unknown. Gangliosides isolated from tumor cells promote collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and ATP secretion and enhance platelet adhesion to immobilized collagen. These activities are all mediated by ganglioside effects on the platelet integrin collagen receptor alpha2beta1. Therefore, we hypothesized that gangliosides isolated from atherosclerotic plaques would enhance platelet adhesion to immobilized collagen, a major component of the subendothelial matrix of blood vessels. Furthermore, we questioned whether this effect of atherosclerotic gangliosides might play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we isolated the gangliosides from postmortem aortas of patients with extensive atherosclerotic disease and examined their effects on platelet adhesion. Samples of aortic tissue taken from areas involved with atherosclerotic plaque demonstrated accumulation of gangliosides (64.9+/-6.5 nmol/g wet weight) compared with gangliosides isolated from control normal aortic tissue taken from children who died of noncardiac causes (NAGs; 21.1+/-6.4 nmol/g wet weight). Interestingly, samples of tissue taken from diseased aortas but from areas not involved with gross plaque formation also demonstrated ganglioside accumulation (47.6+/-12.8 nmol/g wet weight). Next, the activity of each of these gangliosides on platelet adhesion to immobilized type I collagen was studied. Atherosclerotic aortic gangliosides (AAGs) as well as those isolated from grossly unaffected areas of the same aorta (UAGs) both increased platelet adhesion compared with control NAGs (OD570, 0. 37+/-0.11 and 0.29+/-0.14 versus 0.16+/-0.07, respectively; P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). These OD570 values corresponded to 9x10(5), 8x10(4), and 6x10(3) platelets per well after preincubation with 5 micromol/L AAG, UAG, and NAG, respectively. Increased adhesion was observed after preincubation with as little as 0.5 micromol/L AAG, and maximal adhesion was seen at 2.5 micromol/L, with a plateau extending to the highest concentration tested, 10 micromol/L. The effect of AAGs on platelet adhesion to collagen was abrogated by incubation of treated platelets with F-17 anti-alpha2 monoclonal antibody (OD570, 0.13+/-0.02). Finally, the effects of the major individual gangliosides isolated from atherosclerotic tissues, GM3 and GD3, were tested. GM3 increased adhesion to collagen (OD570, 0.415+/-0.06) as did GD3 (0.31+/-0.08). Similar to that of AAGs, the effect of both molecules was blocked by F-17 (0. 09+/-0.04 and 0.13+/-0.06, respectively). These experiments demonstrate that accumulated atherosclerotic gangliosides promote platelet adhesion to collagen, the major component of the subendothelial matrix. Furthermore, this activity is mediated by an effect of the gangliosides on the collagen-binding integrin alpha2beta1. This activity may provide a mechanism for the development of platelet thrombi at sites where atherosclerotic gangliosides accumulate and help to explain the role of platelets in the process of atherosclerotic disease progression. (+info)
(6/1980) Antiganglioside antibodies in Guillain-Barre syndrome after a recent cytomegalovirus infection.
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between anti-ganglioside antibody responses and Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS) after a recent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. METHODS: Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was undertaken on serum samples from 14 patients with GBS with recent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (CMV+GBS) and 12 without (CMV-GBS), 17 patients with other neurological diseases (OND), 11 patients with a recent CMV infection but without neurological involvement, 11 patients with recent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection but without neurological involvement, and 20 normal control (NC) subjects. RESULTS: IgM antibodies were found at 1:100 serum dilution to gangliosides GM2 (six of 14 patients), GM1 (four of 14), GD1a (three of 14) and GD1b (two of 14) in the serum samples of the CMV+GBS patients, but not in those of any of the CMV-GBS patients. IgM antibodies were also found to gangliosides GM1, GD1a, and GD1b in one of 11 OND patients, to ganglioside GM1 in one of 11 non- neurological CMV patients, and to ganglioside GD1b in one of 20 NC subjects. Some patients with EBV infection had IgM antibodies to gangliosides GM1 (five of 11), GM2 (three of 11), and GD1a (two of 11). However, the antibodies to ganglioside GM2 had a low titre, none being positive at 1:200 dilution, whereas five of the CMV+GBS serum samples remained positive at this dilution. CONCLUSION: Antibodies to ganglioside GM2 are often associated with GBS after CMV infection, but their relevance is not known. It is unlikely that CMV infection and anti-ganglioside GM2 antibodies are solely responsible and an additional factor is required to elicit GBS. (+info)
(7/1980) The distribution of ganglioside-like moieties in peripheral nerves.
GM1 ganglioside has been implicated as a target of immune attack in some diseases of the peripheral nervous system. Anti-GM1 ganglioside antibodies are associated with certain acquired immune-mediated neuropathies. It is not clear how anti-GM1 antibodies cause nerve dysfunction and injury; however, sodium and/or potassium ion channel dysfunction at the node of Ranvier has been implicated. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of these neuropathies, we examined the distribution of GM1 ganglioside and Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc moieties in nerve fibres and their relationship to voltage-gated sodium and potassium (Kv1.1, 1.5) channels at the nodes of Ranvier in peripheral nerves from human, rat and dystrophic mice. Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc moieties were localized via the binding of cholera toxin and peanut agglutinin. As a control for the specificity of these findings, we compared the distribution of GM1 moieties to that of the ganglioside GT1b. Our study provides definitive evidence for the presence of Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc bearing moieties on the axolemmal surface of mature myelinated fibres and on Schwann cells. Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc binding sites did not have an obligatory co-localization with voltage-gated sodium channels or the potassium ion channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.5 and are thus not likely carried by these ion channels. In contrast with Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc, GT1b-like moieties are restricted to the axolemma. (+info)
(8/1980) De-N-acetyl-gangliosides in humans: unusual subcellular distribution of a novel tumor antigen.
The disialoganglioside GD3 is a major antigen in human melanomas that can undergo 9-O-acetylation of the outer sialic acid (giving 9-OAc-GD3). Monoclonal antibody SGR37 detects a different modification of the GD3, de-N-acetylation of the 5-N-acetyl group (giving de-N-Ac-GD3). We found that conventional immunohistochemistry of the SGR37 antigen is limited by a reduction in reactivity upon fixation with aldehydes (which presumably react with the free amino group) or with organic reagents (which can extract glycolipids). We optimized conditions for detection of this antigen in unfixed frozen tissue sections and studied its distribution in human tissues and tumors. It is expressed at low levels in a few blood vessels, infiltrating mononuclear cells in the skin and colon, and at moderate levels in skin melanocytes. In contrast, the antigen accumulates at high levels in many melanomas and in some lymphomas but not in carcinomas. In positive melanomas, expression is sometimes more intense and widespread than that of GD3. Both 9-O-acetylation and de-N-acetylation of GD3 seem to occur after its initial biosynthesis. Isotype-matched antibodies against GD3, 9-O-acetyl-GD3 and de-N-acetyl-GD3 were used to compare their subcellular localization and trafficking. 9-O-acetyl-GD3 colocalizes with GD3 predominantly on the cell surface and partly in lysosomal compartments. In contrast, de-N-acetyl-GD3 has a diffuse intracellular location. Adsorptive endocytosis of antibodies indicates that whereas GD3 remains predominantly on the cell surface, de-N-acetyl-GD3 is efficiently internalized into a compartment that is distinct from lysosomes. Rounding up of melanoma cells occurring during growth in culture is associated with relocation of the internal pool of de-N-acetyl-GD3 to the cell surface. Thus, a minor modification of the polar head group of a tumor-associated glycosphingolipid can markedly affect the subcellular localization and trafficking of the whole molecule. The high levels of the SGR37 antigen in melanomas and lymphomas, its selective endocytosis from the cell surface, and its relocation to the cell surface of rounded up cells suggest potential uses in diagnostic or therapeutic approaches to these diseases. (+info)